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JOURNAL OF NATURAL HISTORY, 






CONTAINING 



PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS, 



READ BEFORE THE 



Boston ^ 



of Natural 



PUBLISH!']. \\\ THEIR DIIIECTION 



VOL. VII. NO. I. 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 



L HUMPHREYS STOKER, 
C iARLES K. DILLAWAY, 



SAMUEL L. ABBOT, 
JEFFRIES WYMAN, 



SAMUEL KNEELAND, JK. 



BOSTON: 

1859. 



A SUPPLEMENT 



TO THE 



TEEKESTEIAL 



AIR-BREATHING MOLLUSKS 



OF 



THE UNITED STATES, &c. 



BY 



W. G. BINNEY. 



THE 



TERRESTRIAL 



AIR-BREATHING MOLLUSKS 



OF 



THE UNITED STATES, 



AND THE 



ADJACENT TERRITORIES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



VOL IV. 



BY 



W. G. BINNEY, 



MEMBER OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. CORRE- 
SPONDING MEMBER OF THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY, 
THE NEW YORK LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, THE 
ST. LOUIS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, &C. 



BOSTON: 

FROM THE BOSTON JOURNAL OF NATURAL HISTORY, VOL. VII. 
NEW YORK: B. WESTERMANN, 440 BROADWAY. 

LONDON: TRUBNER & CO. 60 PATERNOSTER ROW. 
M DCCC LIX. 



IJ: 



RIVERSIDE, CAMBRIDGE: 
PRINTED BY H. O. HOUGIITON, AND COMPANY. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV. 



1. THE SPECIES OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 

PAGE 

LIMACEA : ARION ......... 6 

LIMAX 6 

HELICEA : SUCCINEA 6 

HELIX ......... 7 

BULIMUS 24 

ACHATINA 26 

AURICULACEA: MELAMPUS 26 

ACICULACEA : TRUNCATELLA 28 

2. THE SPECIES EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 

LIMACEA : YAGINULUS 29 

TEBENNOPHORUS 30 

ARION 31 

LIMAX 31 

HELICEA: VITRINA 32 

SUCCINEA 34 

HELIX 43 

BULIMUS 125 

MACROCERAMUS 137 

ACHATINA .* 138 

GLANDINA 139 

PUPA 141 

VERTIGO 148 

CYLINDRELLA . 149 

AURICULACEA 152 

MELAMPUS 156 

ALEXIA 172 

BLAUNERIA 175 

LEUCONIA . . . . . . . .177 

CARYCHIUM 178 

ACICULACEA : TRUNCATELLA 184 

CYCLOSTOMACEA : CHONDROPOMA 190 

HELICINACEA . ... ... 191 

HELICINA 192 



THE author is under many obligations to the following persons 
for the assistance they have afforded him in the preparation of this 
work : 

E. S. MORSE, Portland, Me. 

L. B. GIBBES, M. D., Charleston, S. C. 

I. LEA, Philadelphia. 

J. H. THOMSOX, New Bedford, Mass. 

PROF. S. F. BAIRD, Washington, D. C. 

W. STIMPSOX, Cambridge, Mass. 

E. FOREMAN, M. D., "Washington, D. C. 

S. M. LUTHER, Garretsville, Portage Co., Ohio. 

J. G. AXTHOXY, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

T. E. IXGALLS, M. D., Greenwich, Washington Co., N. Y. 

W. NEWCOMB, M. D., Albany, N. Y. 

JAMES LEWIS, M. D., Mohawk, N. Y. 

A. A. GOULD, M. D., Boston. 
STEPHEX ELLIOTT, D. D., Savannah, Ga. 

0. M. DORMAX, St. Augustine, Fla. 
JACOB RESOR, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
COL. E. JEWETT, Albany, N. Y. 

1. A. LAPHAM, Milwaukie, Wis. 
FRAXK HIGGIXS, Columbus, Ohio. 
JAMES POSTELL, St. Simon's Isle, Ga. 

H. M. NEISLER, M. D., Butler, Taylor Co., Ga. 
PROF. A. A. WIXCHELL, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
T. BLAXD, New York. 
FELIPE POEY, Havana, Cuba. 
J. H. REDFIELD, New York. 

B. F. SHUMARD, M. D., St. Louis, Mo. 



Vlll 



HUGH CUMING, London. 

Louis PFEIFFER, M. D., Cassell. 

PROF. G. C. SWALLOW, Columbia, Mo. 

SAMUEL TUFTS, JR., Manchester, Mass. 

W. COOPER, Hoboken, N. J. 

F. V. HAYDEN, M. D., Washington, D. C. 

R. KENNICOTT, Illinois. 

EDWARD NORTON, Farmington, Conn. 

PROF. W. M. STEWART, Clarkesville, Tenn. 

E. R. SHOWALTER, M. D., Uniontown, Ala. 

REV. P. P. CARPENTER, Warrington, England. 

J. S. NEWBERRY, M. D., Washington, D. C. 

S. E. SHURTLEFF, M. D., Westfield, Mass. 

PROF. F. S. HOLMES, Charleston, S. C. 

FRANCIS MOORE, Texas. 

PROF. W. B. ROGERS, Boston, Mass. 

JAMES SAVAGE, Boston, Mass. 

T. A. CONRAD, Trenton, N. J. 

JOSEPH LEIDY, M. D., Philadelphia. 

PROF. J. M. SAFFORD, Lebanon, Tenn. 

PROF. J. P. KIRTLAND, Cleveland, Ohio. 

MRS. L. W. SAY, Newburg, N. Y. 

W. D. HARTMANN, M. D., Westchester, Pa. 

J. H. SLACK, Crosswicks, N. J. 

W. M. GABB, Philadelphia. 

J. P. HASKELL, Marblehead, Mass. 



THE TERRESTRIAL 



AIR-BREATHING MOLLUSKS 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES. 

VOLUME IV. 



THE following pages are devoted to a continuation of 
the work of my father on the Terrestrial Mollusks of the 
United States. They are believed to contain all the latest 
information regarding the several species, their varieties, 
synonymy, geographical distribution, &c. I have also 
added many references to authors not quoted in the Mol- 
lusks, as well as to those whose works have appeared 
more recently. Descriptions of all the newly discovered 
species are added, and figures given of all to which I have 
been able to obtain access. 

Since no species was described in the " Mollusks," with 
which the author or the able editor was not personally 
acquainted, there were quite a number of doubtful species 
entirely omitted in that work. These I have added, with 
all the information in regard to them which I have been 
able to obtain. 

In addition to the species recently discovered, there are 
many shells which have been described as distinct species 
during the last twelve years, though considered as only 

1 The plates are numbered in continuation of those in the third volume of the 
"Terrestrial Mollusks," by Dr. Amos Binney; as the paper forms a continuation 
of that work. 

1 



Z PREFACE. 

varieties of other species by Dr. Binney. In treating these, 
I have followed the opinions of the latest writers, founded 
on the advanced state of our knowledge of this depart- 
ment of science. 

In all doubtful cases, I have given the original descrip- 
tion and figure of the authors whose opinions conflict, 
often reserving my own decision till more information has 
been obtained. I have also endeavored to increase the 
usefulness of my work by adding many descriptions and 
figures from rare and generally inaccessible works. 

The measurements of the shells described are the same 
as adopted by Dr. Pfeiffer, and are given in the millimetre, 
which is equal to ^ of an inch. I have also followed 
Dr. Pfeiffer in the systematic arrangement of the various 
genera. 

The species of the Western Coast are grouped sepa- 
rately. I have described only those which have actually 
been found within the limits of the United States, though 
I have added the names of all the extra limital species 
found north of Mazatlan. In the second division of the 
work, I have included the species inhabiting the whole 
continent of North America, from the boreal regions to 
the Rio Grande. 

I would take this opportunity of returning thanks to the 
numerous friends who have aided my studies by furnish- 
ing me specimens and interesting information regarding 
the species of their vicinity. I am particularly indebted 
to my friend Thomas Bland, Esq., of New York, for the 
use of his most interesting collection of American land 
shells, as well as for the great advantage I have derived 
from his valuable assistance during the four years I have 
devoted to the following pages. To Mrs. Thomas Say, 
also, I am under very great obligations for the use of her 
husband's MSS. and many letters from Fenessac and 
other conchologists. Many of Say's types, preserved in 



CATALOGUE OF AUTHORS. 3 

the Philadelphia Academy, have been consulted by me, 
as well as those of my father which are in my own collec- 
tion. 

I have endeavored to include all the information on this 
subject which has been published prior to January 1st, 
1859. In subsequent supplements I shall endeavor to pre- 
sent all the additional information elicited by future re- 
search. To this end, criticisms on the opinions I have 
advanced are solicited, and suites of local species from 
every part of the country. 

The Auriculacea and the Aciculacea of the United 
States are added to the families described in the " Mol- 
lusks." This first attempt to describe them has been at- 
tended by many disadvantages, and is offered with great 
hesitation as necessarily quite incomplete. 
Burlington, N. J., August, 1859. 

^ 

The following list contains the additional works referred 
to in the text. 

N. B. The date given is always that of the separate portions of an} 7 periodical 
work; when it is impossible to ascertain this, the date of the general title is 
given. 

Adams, C. B. Contributions to Conchology. New York, 1849-52. 

Natural History of the Red River of Louisiana. Washington, 

1853. 

Adams, Henry and Arthur. The Genera of Recent Mollusca, arranged accord- 
ing to their Organization. London. Pulmonifera (pts. xix-xxiii). Jan. -Sept. 
1855. 

Amtlicher Bericht liber die 24te Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher und 
Aerzte in Kiel, Sept. 1846. Kiel, 1847, pp. 113, 114, 122, 123, 220. 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York, 1858. 

Anton, H. E. Verzeichniss der Conchylien, &c. 1839. 

Billings, E. Notes on the Natural Histoiy of the Mountain of Montreal. From 
the Canadian Naturalist and Geologist. May, 1857. 

Binney, W. G. Descriptions of American Land Shells. In Proceedings of 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1857, p. 18. Febr. 1857. 

Notes on American Land Shells. In same, ii. Oct. 1857; iii. 
May, 1858; iv. Nov. 1858. 

Description of two supposed new Species of American Land 

Shells. Proc. of Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. VI. 155. April, 1857. 



4 CATALOGUE OF AUTHOES. 

Binney, W. G. Report upon the Land Shells collected by the Survey. In Vol. 
VI. of Pacific Rail Road Exploration Report. Washington, 1857. 

Vide Say. 

Bland, Thomas. Remarks on certain Species of North American Helicidaj, 
with Descriptions of new Species. Part I. New York, 1858. From vol. vi. of Ann. 
of Lye. Nat. Hist, of New York, p. 277-299, Febr. 1858; p. 336-358, Sept. 1858. 

Bourgignat, J. R. Du genre Carychium. In Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, 
Mai, 1857. 

Carpenter, P. P. Cat. of the Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca. War- 
rington, 1855 - 57. 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge with Regard to 

the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America. (From the Report of the Brit. 
Ass. Adv. Sc. 1856.) London, 1857. 

Case, William. Description of two new Species of Shells in Silliman's Journal, 
N. S. Vol. III. No. 7, Jan. 1847. 

Chenu. Illustrations Conchyliologiques, &c. 

Delessert, Benj. Receuil de coquilles de'crites par Lamarck et non encore 
figure'es, 1841. 

Fabricius, 0. Fauna Groanlandica. 1780. 

Forbes, Edward. In Proc. of the Zoological Society of London. 

Forbes and Hanley. A History of British Mollusca and their Shells. 4 vols. 
1848-52. 

Frauenfeld, G. In Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-botanischen Vereins zu 
Wien, 1854. 

Die Gatlung Carychium. Aus dem lahreshefte des lahrganges 

1856 der Sitzungsberichte der mathem.-naturwiss. Classe der Kais. Akademie der 
Wiss. (Band xix. S. 70.) Wien, 1856. 

Gould, A. A. In Agassiz's Lake Superior, &c. 1850. 

Mollusca of the United States Exploring Expedition. Boston, 
1852. The plates are not yet published. 

Grateloup, S. Distribution Geographique de la Famille des Limaciens. Bor- 
deaux, 1855. 

Gray., J. E. Catalogue of Pulmonata, or Ah'-breathing Mollusca in the Collec- 
tion of the British Museum. Part I. March, 1855. 

and Pfeiffer, L. Catalogue of Phaneropneumona or Terrestrial 

Operculated Mollusca in the Collection of the British Museum. London, 1852. 

Gray, M. E. Figures of Molluscous Animals, selected from various Authors. 
Vol. IV. 1850. 

Held in Isis. 

Higgins, Frank. Catalogue of Shellbearing Mollusca inhabiting the Vicinity of 
Columbus, Ohio, &c. 

Kuster, H. C. Auriculacea (1844). Truncatella (1855). Bulimus, Achatina, 
and Pupa of the new edition of Martini and Chemnitz Conchylien Cabinet. 

Lapham, I. A. Catalogue of Wisconsin Mollusca. In the Trans, of the Wis- 
consin State Agricultural Soc. Vol. II. Madison, 1852. 

Lea, Isaac, in Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, and in the Journal and Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Sciences, passim. 

Lewis, James. Shellbearing Species of Mollusca observed in Portions of Herki- 



CATALOGUE OF AUTHORS. 5 

mer and Otsego Counties, New York. In Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. VI. 2. 
July, 1856. 

Martini and Chemnitz Conchylien Cabinet. Ed. nov. see Pfeiffer and Kiister. 

Mittre in Revue Zoologique. 1841. 

Moller, H. P. C. Index Molluscorum Groenlandire, Hafvnise, 1842. 

Morch, 0. A. L. Mollusca Groenlandica. From Rink's Greenland. Kioben- 
havn, 1857. 

Morelet, Arthur. Testacea Novissima Insulas Cubanse et America Ceutralis. 
Pars 11. Paris, 1851. 

Morse, E. S. Description of a new Species of Helix. In Proceedings of Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist. VI. 128. March, 1857. 

Muhlfeldt, Megerle von. In Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft naturforschender 
Freunde zu Berlin, 1824, 1. St. 4. 

Miiller, Th. Synopsis Testaceorum anno 1834 Promulgatomm, 1836. 

Petit de la Saussaye. Journal de Conchyliologie. Paris, 1850. 

Petiver, James. Remarks on some Animals, &c., from Maryland. Philosophi- 
cal Transactions, London, 1698, p. 395. 

Pfeifter, L. Die Gattungen Vitrina, Helix, und Succinea in Chemn. Conch. Cab. 
Ed. 2 do. do. Helicinacea uud Cyclostomacea. 

Novitates Conchologicse. Cassell, 1854. 

In the Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, passim. 

In Roemer's Texas, p. 454. Bonn, 1849. 

Monographia Auriculaceorum Viventium. Casselis, 1856. 

Monographia Pneumonopomorum Viventium, Cassell, 1853. 

Supplementum Primum, 1858. 



Symbolae ad Historiam Heliceoi-um, pars 3, 1846. 
Monographia Heliceorum Viventium, i. ii. 1848; iii. 1853. 
In the Malako-zoologische Blatter, passim. 



Poey, F. Memorias sobre la Historia Natural de la Isla de Cuba, i. 1852 - 6; ii. 
1857. 

Potiez et Michaud. Galerie des Mollusques du Museum de Douai, i. 1838. 

Reeve, Lovell. Conchologia Iconica, Helix, Bulimus, Achafina. 

Roe mer. Vid. Pfeiffer. 

Russell, J. R. Familiar Notice of some of the Shells found in the Limits of 
Essex County, Massachusetts. In the Journ. Essex Co. Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. I. 
No. 2, 1839. 

Say, Thomas. Complete Writings on the Conchology of the United States. 
Edited by W. G. Binney. New York, 1858. 

Shuttleworth, R. T., in Mittheilungen der naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bern. 
1852, 1854. 

Notitiee Malacologicse, oder Beitrage zur nahern Kenntniss 

der Mollusken. Heft. I. Febr. 1856. 

Stimpson, William. Shells of New England. A Revision of the Synonymy of 
the Testaceous Mollusks of New England. Boston, 1851. 

Troschel, in Wiegmann's Archiv. fiir Naturgeschichte. 

Valenciennes. Voyage de la Venus, Atlas. 

Woodward, S. P. A Manual of the Mollusca, or a Rudimentary Treatise ou 
Recent and Fossil Shells. London, Part II. 1854. 



6 THE SPECIES OF 

I. THE SPECIES OF THE PACIFIC COAST. 
FAMILY LIMACEA. 

GENUS ARION FERUSSAC. 

ARION FOLIOLATUS GOULD vol. ii. p. 30, pi. Ixvi. fig. 2. 

Arion foliolatus GOULD, Ex. Ex. p. 2, fig. 2 a b. 

GENUS UMAX FERUSSAC. 

LIMAX COLUMBIANUS GOULD vol. ii. p. 43, pi. Ixvi. fig. 1. 

Limax Columbianus GOULD, Ex. Ex. p. 3, fig. 1 a b c. 

FAMILY HELICEA. 

GENUS SUCCINEA DRAPANAUD. 
SUCCINEA NUTTALLIANA LEA vol. ii. p. 81, pi. Ixvii. a, fig. 2. 

Succinea Nultalliana LEA, Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. ix. p. 4. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 523; Hi. 15. 

SUCCINEA OREGONENSIS LEA vol. ii. p. 77, pi. Ixvii. c, fig. 2. 

Succinea Oregonensis LEA, Tr. Phil. Soc. ix. p. 1, p. 5, (1844). 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 523; iii. 15. 

SUCCINEA RUSTICANA GOULD. 
PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 14. 

T. elongata, ovato-conica, tenuis, pallide virens, impolita, lineis in- 
equalibus incrementalibus et crassis striata, subtus convexa ; spira acuta, 
anfr. 3 convexiusculis ; apertura ovata, quadrantes tres longitudinis ade- 
quans ; columella arcuata, perspicue plicata. (Gould). 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Succinea ruslicana GOULD, Pr. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. ii. 187, Dec. 1846; Expe- 
dition Shells, 31 ; Mollusca of Exploring Ex. p. 28, fig. 29, 
1852. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 523; iii. 15. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Shell elongate, ovate conical, rather large, thin and fragile ; pale 
greenish horn color, surface rude and without lustre, coarsely and 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 7 

irregularly marked by the lines of growth. Spire acute, of three 
or more moderately convex whorls, separated by a well impressed 
suture, the last whorl large and long, narrowing towards the base ; 
body portion of the face of the shell moderately large. Aperture 
ovate, three fourths the length of the shell ; fold of the columella 
distinct. 

Length of axis ^-, breadth ^ inch. 

Geographical Distribution. Oregon. 

Remarks. Somewhat allied to S. pudorina in form, but very dif- 
ferent in color. (Gould). 

I have not seen this species. The above is Gould's de- 
scription. The figure I have given is a fac-simile of the 
outline of the figure referred to above. 

EXTRA LIMITAL SPECIES. 

Succinea cingulata Forbes, from Mazatlan, is described in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1850, p. 56. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 
Succinea aperta Lea, vid. vol. ii. p. 67. 

GENUS HELIX LINNAEUS. 

HELIX TUDICULATA BINNEY vol. ii. p. 118, pi. xvi. 

Helix tudiculata PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 283. 

Pfeiffer (1. c.) repeats Binney's description, not having 
seen the shell, and suggests doubtfully its being a variety 
of H. Calif or niensis. 

HELIX NICKLINIANA LEA vol. ii. p. 119, pi. vi. a- 

Helix NiMiniana TROSCHEL, Arch, fur Nat. 1839, ii. 221. 

Helix Californiensis CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 332, pi. Ivii. fig. 14-15, Excl. var. 2, 

(1846). 

EEEVE, No. 661. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 339 ; in. 229. 

Helix arboretorum VALENCIENNES, Voy. de la Venus. Moll. pi. i. fig. 3. 
Helix nemoraviga VALENCIENNES, 1. c. fig. 1. 

" Animal reddish gray, tentacles and base of foot bluish ; quite 



8 THE SPECIES OF 

narrow in proportion to the length of the shell ; tentacles short. 
Gregarious, inhabiting dry gullies and hill sides ; many specimens 
found in a cabbage garden." (Thomson). 

This shell varies very considerably in size and in the 
elevation of its spire. This fact will account for the differ- 
ence in the figures referred to in the synonymy. That of 
pi. vi. a, is a perfect representation of what Lea's original 
specimen would be in a fresh state. 

Helix Californiensis of Pfeiffer, Chemnitz, and Reeve, 
are to be referred to this species. Those authors are in- 
correct in considering H. Nickliniana a variety of H. Cali- 
forniensis. 

H. arboretorum is placed by Pfeiffer doubtfully in the 
synonymy of H. Californiensis, while H. nemoraviga is 
placed among the uncertain species. A fac-simile of Va- 
lenciennes's figure of the former is given, pi. 76, fig. 13, 
and of the latter on pi. 79, fig. 11. 

I have described, under the names of H. redemita and 
H. intercisa, the shells figured on pi. vi. as varieties of this 
species. 

HELIX INTERCISA. 

PLATE VI. FIGURE 1. Middle figure. 

Testa solidissima, luteo-cinerea, apice rufa, globoso-conica ; spira bre- 
vis ; sutura impressa ; anfractus quinque, convexiusculi, lineis parallelis 
volventibus, valde demissis, strias incrementales clistinctas intercidentibus 
notati ; anfr. ultimus globosus, supra peripheriam fascia unica, rufa ob- 
scurissiina ornatus ; apertura inaxime obliqua, forma equi calcei, rotun- 
data ; labrum albo-cinereum, incrassatum, subtus reflexiuscutuin, sub- 
unidentatum, umbilicum totum tegens ; marginibus approxhnatis, callo 
inter] unctis. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix intercisa W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. N. S. Phila. ix. p. 18, (Oct. 1857); 

Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. vi. p. 156; Notes, p. 1. 

Helix Nickliniana var. BINNEY, Terrestrial Mollusks, ii. p. 120 ; iii. pi. vi. f. 1. 

Icon in medioposita. 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 9 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell globose-conic, with five slightly-rounded whorls; 
spire little elevated ; suture distinct ; upon the body whorl 
a dark revolving -band, hardly discernible ; aperture very 
oblique, shape of a horseshoe ; peristome thickened, heavy, 
dirty white, slightly reflected at the umbilicus, which it 
entirely conceals, near its junction with the columella fur- 
nished with a tooth-like process, the extremities connected 
by a heavy ash-colored callus, which is spread more lightly 
over the whole parietal wall ; epidermis grayish yellow, 
apex rufous. The striae of growth are very numerous and 
distinct, crossed by numerous, regular, revolving lines, so 
deeply impressed as to entirely separate them into small 
sections ; thus the whole surface of the shell is divided 
into minute, raised parallelograms, separated by the deep 
longitudinal and horizontal furrows. 

Greatest diameter, 22 ; lesser, 19 ; alt. 15 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found in Oregon Territory. 

Remarks. This shell I found in the collection of my 
father. It was labelled H. Nickliniana Lea, var., and as 
such is figured in the Terrestrial Mollusks. I cannot be- 
lieve, however, that any species can admit of varieties dif- 
fering so much as this does from Nickliniana. To Mr. 
Lea's figure and description it bears no resemblance what- 
ever, either in shape or sculpturing. 

It may readily be distinguished among the Helices of 
the Pacific coast, by its grayish, heavy shell, its thickened 
lip, and above all, by the peculiar markings of the surface. 

HELIX REDEMITA. 

PLATE VI. FIGURE 1. 

Testa globoso-conica, imperforata, tenuiscula, minute et confertim gran- 
ulata, corrugata, rufo-brunnea ; apex laevigata, obtusula, spira elevata ; 
anfr. 6 convex!, sutura impressa distinct!, ultimus permagnus, inflatus, ad 

2 



10 THE SPECIES OF 

aperturam descendens, supra medium fascia fusea redimitus ; apertura 
perobliqua, transversoorbicularis, intus unifasciata ; perist. simplex, rufo- 
cinereum, incrassatulum, marginibus valde approximatis, basali reflexius- 
culo, callo albo umbilicum tegente. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix redimita W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. of Phila. vol. ix. p. 183, Notes, 

p. 3, Oct. 1857. 
Helix Nickliniana var. BINNEY. Terr. Moll. iii. pi. vi. fig. 1, (excepta icone in medio 

posita) 1857. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell globose-conic, imperforate, rather thin, wrinkled, 
covered with minute and crowded granulations ; color red- 
dish brown; apex free from granules, rather blunt; spire 
elevated ; suture impressed ; whorls six, convex, the last 
quite large and rounded, falling towards the aperture, and 
banded with reddish brown above the middle ; aperture 
rather large in proportion to the size of the shell, very 
oblique, transversely rounded, within showing the band; 
peristome simple, reddish ash color, thickened, reflected 
slightly at the base, ends approached ; umbilicus entirely 
covered with a white callus. 

Greater diameter, 31 ; lesser, 17 ; height, 12 mill. 

Geographical Distribution. I am not acquainted with 
the exact locality of this shell, but am inclined to refer it 
to California. 

Remarks. This shell is figured by my father as a var. 
of H. Nickliniana Lea. A reference to Mr. Lea's figure 
and description wiU at once show it to be distinct, accord- 
ing to the present notions of specific weight. Dr. Gould 
refers it (Terr. Moll. iii. p. 26) to H. Californiensis Reeve, 
(Con. Icon. 661). It appears, however, to be distinct from 
the shell there figured. 

In general outline it resembles H. Kellettii Forbes, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1850, pi. ix, f. 2, as well as Reeve's 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 11 

fig. 665 &, not 665 a, Con. Icon. The resemblance will be 
found, however, to cease with the outline, on a comparison 
of the two shells. H. Kellettii is sometimes perforate, is 
differently colored, and belongs rather to the group of Cali- 
fornia Helices represented by H. areolata Sowb. and H. 
Pandorce, Forbes, than that of H. Ca/iforniensis Lea, inter- 
cisa, nob. and the shell before me. 



HELIX ANACHORETA. 

PLATE LXXVI. FIGURE 5. 

T. orbiculato-convexa, aperte umbilicata, cinereo-rufescens, granulata 
et rare indenta ; spira elevata, conica; anf. 6 convexi, ultimus subtus 
ventricosus ; sutura impressa ; perist. incrassatum, vix reflexiusculum, 
violaceo-albidum, umbilicum baud multum occultans, marginibus approx- 
imatis, callo conjunctis ,' faux violacea ; apertura obliqua, transverso-ro- 
tundata. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix anachoreta W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. of Phila. ix. p. 185, Notes, 
p. 5, Oct. 1857. 

DESCRIPTION. 

" Animal light ashen color, tentacles nearly white ; aver- 
age length of some thirty specimens 2| inches (2 diameters 
of shell) ; superior tentacles 5-8ths ; inferior 3-16ths inch ; 
foot broad at the posterior extremity ; a line of large gran- 
ules down the middle of the back ; sides of foot margined 
with a line of light granules (pores) ; genital orifice poste- 
rior to and beneath the larger tentacles. In its habits soli- 
tary." (Thomson.) 

Shell reddish ashen, orbicularly convex; spire elevated, 
conic ; umbilicus open, slightly concealed by the peris- 
tome ; whorls six, granulated and sparsely indented ; su- 
ture impressed ; below ventricose ; aperture transversely 
rounded ; peristome thickened, scarcely reflected, whitish, 
with a violet tinge, the extremities approaching each other 



12 THE SPECIES OF 

and connected with a callus on the parietal wall ; throat 
violet. 

Greater diameter, 26 ; lesser, 21 ; height, 14 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found by Mr. J. H. Thom- 
son widely distributed in California. 

Remarks. It was with some hesitation that I proposed 
a name for this shell. I at first considered it as a bandless 
variety of Nickliniana Lea. But on expressing this opin- 
ion to Mr. Thomson, he gave me the above description of 
the animal and its habits, which are quite distinct from 
those of Mr. Lea's shell. Its characteristics were found 
constant at various remote points of the State, and in a 
considerable number of specimens. They seem too great 
for a simple variety. The animal is also different in its 
habits from Nickliniana^ being found only solitary, while 
the latter is gregarious. 

The shell is one of the very few bandless species of Cal- 
ifornia. 

HELIX RETICULATA PFEIFFEK. 

T. umbilicata, globoso-depressa, solidula, oblique striata, striis subregu- 
lariter antrorsum descendentibus oblongo-granulata, fulvida, fascia 1 rufa 
peripheria cincta ; spira breviter conoidea ; anfr. 5 convexiusculi, ultimus 
latus, rotundatus, antice non descendens ; umbilicus angustus, non per- 
vius ; apertura diagonalis, rotundato-lunaris ; perist. crasse albo-labiatum, 
marginibus distantibus, dextro vix expansiusculo, columellari declivi su- 
perne dilatato, reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 22, min. 18, alt. Hi m ill. Hab. in California. 
(Pfeiffer, Malak. Blatt. 1857, p. 87.) 

I have not seen this species. The above is Pfeiffer's 
description. 



HELIX EXARATA PFEIFFER. 

T. umbilicata, conoideo-depressa, solidula, undique malleato-rugulosa, 
lutescens, fascia 1 castanea cincta ; spira breviter conoidea, acutiuscula ; 
anfr. 7 parum convexi, lente accrescentes, ultimus latior, rotundatus, 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 13 

antice vix decendens, circa unibilicuni mediocrem, apertum subcompres- 
sus ; apertura obliqua, late lunaris; perist. leviter albo-labiatum, margin- 
ibus vix convergentibus, dextro breviter expanse, colmnellari superne 
triangulatim dilatato, patente. [Pf.] 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix exarata PFETFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, May, 1857, p. 108. 
Diam. maj. 30, min. 25, alt. 16 mill. Hab. California ? (Pf.) 

I have not seen this species. The description given 
above is PfeifFer's. 

HELIX CALIFORNIENSIS LEA vol. ii. p. 121, pi. vi. fig. 2. 

Helix Californiensis TROSCHEL in Wiegm. Arch. 1839, ii. 221. 

DEKAY, N. Y, Moll. p. 46, not of Pfeitfer, Chemnitz, 

Eeeve. 

Helix vincta VALENCIENNES, Voy. dela Venus, Moll. pi. 1, fig. 2, absq. desc. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, vol. ii. p. 487, t. 160, fig. 2 (1854). 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 660. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 183. 
W. G. BINNEY, Notes, p. 9. 

In my notes No. 2, 1 expressed the opinion that H. vincta 
figured by Valenciennes was distinct from this species. 
Having since carefully compared Lea's original specimen 
with Valenciennes's figure, I am convinced of their iden- 
tity. The figure in the Terrestrial MoUusks is a correct 
representation of this species in a fresh state. Reeve's 
figure 660 is also good. That of Chemnitz (1. c.) is less 
characteristic. Lea's figure is very poorly drawn, and at 
best represents a dead and worn specimen. 

Under the name of H. vincta^ therefore, descriptions and 
figures of H. Californiensis are to be found in the works 
referred to in the synonymy. All other descriptions and 
figures referred to Helix Californiensis represent Helix 
Nickliniana, including those given in Chemnitz, PfeifFer, 
and Reeve. 

HELIX RAMENTOSA GOULD vol. iii. p. 12. 



THE SPECIES OF 

HELIX LORICATA GOULD vol. ii. p. 145, pi. xxix a. fig. 2. 

Helix loricata GOULD, U. S. Ex. Ex. Moll. p. 68, fig. 39, a. b. c. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. p. 265. 
Helix Lecontii LEA, Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. vol. x. No. 2, p. 303, pi. xxx. fig. 13 (1852). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. p. 265. 

From an examination of Lea's original specimen of 
Lecontii, as well as from his description and figure, I am 
convinced of its identity with loricata. Gould expresses 
this opinion (Ex. Ex. p.* 501, Addenda), Pfeiffer copies 
Lea's description, not having seen the shell, and remarks 
" Nonne varietas umbilicata H. pustulce ? ' 

" Animal white, linear, rough, posteriorly acute, tentacles 
very short." (Thomson.) 

The shell is furnished with the peculiar internal fulcrum 
mentioned by Lea, (1. c.) 

HELIX GERM AN A GOULD vol. ii. p. 156, pi. xl a. fig. 3.* 

Helix germana GOULD, U. S. Ex. Ex. Moll. p. 70, fig. 40 a. b. c. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 269. 

HELIX FIDELIS GRAY vol. ii. p. 159, pi. xviii. 

Helix fidelis MULLER, Syn. Test, anno 1834 promulgatorum, p. 8. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, vol. i. 321, pi. Ivii. fig. 12-13 (1846). 

KEEVE, Con. Icon. No. 657 (1852). 

W. G. BLNNEY, Pac. R. E. Rep. vi. p. Ill (1857). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 229. 
Helix Nultalliana TROSCHEL, Arch, fur Nat. 1839, ii. 229. 

GOULD, U. S. Ex. Ex. Moll. p. 65, fig. 38 (1852). 

All the more recent writers agree in placing H. Nuttalli- 
ana in the synonymy of H. fidelis, excepting Gould, who, 
as late as 1852, (1. c.) remarks, " As there are other species 
in that region corresponding equally well with Gray's 
indefinite description, I think it proper to retain Mr. Lea's 
name until the identity can be fully settled." 

* On the copy of the plate referred to, engraved by Delarue, the aperture of 
Helix maxillata is erroneously placed next the figure of this species. This mis- 
take does not occur on the other copy of the plate. 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 15 

HELIX INFUMATA GOULD vol. iii. p. 13, pi. Ixxix. fig. 2. 

Helix infumata W. G. BINNEY, Pac. E. R. Rep. vi. p. 112. 

HELIX TOWNSENDIANA LEA vol. ii. p. 161, pi. xix. 

Helix Town&endiana TROSCHEL, Arch, fiir Nat. 1839, ii. 221. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 323, pi. Ivii. fig. 10, 11 (1846). 

REEVE, Con. Icon. 625 (1852). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 229. 

GOULD, U. S. Ex. Ex. Moll. 67, fig. 36. 

HELIX ARROSA GOULD vol. iii. p. 12, pi. Ixxvi. fig. 4. 

Helix ceruginosa GOULD, 1. c. 

W. G. BINNEY, Pac. R. R. Rep. vi. p. 113. 
Helix arrosa GOULD in litt. 

W. G. BINNEY, Notes, p. 5. 

This name is proposed by Gould in place of ceruginosa^ 
that being preoccupied. 

HELIX DUPETITHOUARSI DESHAYES. . .vol. iii. p. 14, pi. Ixxvi. fig. 9. 

Helix Dupetithouarsi DESHAYES, in Fer. i. 169, pi. xcvii. fig. 8-10. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. 659 (1852). 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. Excl. var. B.; iii. 229. 
W. G. BINNEY, P. R. R. Rep. vi. p. 114. 
Helix Oregonensis TROSCHEL, Arch, fiir Nat. 1839, ii. 221. 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. 46. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 272. 

In the collection of the Smithsonian Institute there are 
specimens of this shell which are furnished with a delicate 
greenish-yellow epidermis. As this has never been noticed 
in descriptions, I believe it must exist only on very fresh 
specimens, which are rarely seen. On being immersed 
some minutes in water, the epidermis becomes of a bright 
golden color. 

The figure is a fac simile of that of Deshayes. 

HELIX MORMONUM PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 21. 

T. umbilicata, depressa, tenuiscula, arcuato-striatula, pallide rufes- 
cens ; spira vix conoideo-elevata ; anfr. 6, vix convexiusculi, lente ac- 



16 THE SPECIES OF 

crescentes, ultlmus utrinque convexior, antice turgidulus, vix descendens, 
supra medium fascia castanea, utrinque albido-marginata cinctus, basi 
convexus ; umbilicus mediocris, conicus ; apertura perobliqua, auriformi, 
lunaris; perist. albo-labiatum, marginibus convergentibus, dextro perar- 
cuato, expanse, columellari arcuato-declivi, reflexo, superne dilatato. 
[Pf.j 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix Mormonum PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, May, 1857, p. 109. 

Diam. maj. 29, min. 24, alt. 12 mill. Hob. Mormon Island, Cali- 
fornia. 



The above is Pfeiffer's description. I have not seen 
the shell, but through the kindness of Mr. Cuming I have 
been able to give a figure of it. 

HELIX COLUMBIAN A LEA ......... vol. ii. p. 169, pi. v. pi. xiii. a. fig. 1. 

Helix Columbiana TROSCHEL, Arch, flir Nat. 1839, ii. 221. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 332, pi. Iviii. fig. 10-12 (1846). 

KEEVE, Con. Icon. No. 692 (1852). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 262. 

Helix labiosa GOULD, vol. ii. p. 170; U. S. Ex. Ex. Moll. p. 67, fig. 35. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. p. 262. 

I think there can be no doubt of the identity of these 
two species. Lea's description was drawn from a worn 
specimen, denuded of its hairs. It will be remarked that 
Reeve and Pfeiffer describe it as being covered " pilis 
brevibus." The latter author gives Gould's description of 
labiosci) not having seen the shell, but records his belief 
in the indentity of the two. 

Mr. Thomson gives me the following note on the ani- 
mal of this species. It seems more than probable that he 
has confounded it with some other shell, as his observa- 
tions do not agree with those given on p. 171 (vid. Notes, 
p. 8). 

" Animal twice as long as the breadth of the shell, dark 
slate color, almost black on the head and tentacles ; a 
black line running along each side of the back from the 
base of the longer tentacles ; body covered with com- 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 17 

pressed granules ; tentacles black, acutely pointed ; eyes 
at the base of superior tentacles ; anatomy believed to re- 
semble, somewhat, that of the Lymniadae. Gregarious ; 
in its habits resembling Lymnaea, being found always near 
water, and laying its eggs on the water-cresses and other 
aquatic plants. Arrives at maturity in one year, one half 
the time required by the other species." 

HELIX DEVIA GOULD vol. iii. p. 11, pi. Ixxix. fig. 13. 

Helix devia PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 262. 

GOULD, Addenda, Ex. Ex. #501. 
Helix Baskervillei PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 230. 

There can be no doubt of the identity of these two 
species. Gould's original specimen agrees perfectly with 
the figure of Reeve (1. c.) and Pfeiffer's description. The 
latter remarks on H. Baskervillei " Conf. H. devia Gould, 
huic forsan peraffinis." 

The shell figured is preserved in the Cumingian collec- 
tion. 

HELIX KELLETTI FORBES. 
PLATE LXXVI. FIGURE 12. 

H. testa anguste umbilicata, depresso globosa, tenui, rugulosa, granu- 
lata, fulva, spira subturbinata, sordide flavo conspersa, rufo-unifasciata', 
anfr. 6 convexiusculi, ultimo ad peripheriam fascia pallida cincto, basi 
subinflato; apertura lunato-rotundata, intus pallide fusca, unifasciata; 
perist. reflexiusculo, margine columellari dilatato, reflexo, uinbilicum 
occultante. Diatn. max. 22, min. 19, alt. 19 mill. 

This species is nearly allied to H. Californiensis Lea. It differs 
in the more pyramidal contour of the spire, in the less tumid body 
whorl, and consequently differently shaped, more lunate, slightly 
elongated mouth. The margin of the mouth is more reflected. 
[Forbes.] 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix Kdletti FORBES, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1850, p. 55, pi. ix. fig. 2 a. b. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 665, (1852). 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 467, pi. clvi. fig. 19, 20, (1853). 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 183. 

3 



18 THE SPECIES OF 

Not possessing a fresh specimen of this species, I am 
not able to add a more detailed description to that of 
Forbes, repeated above. My figure is a fac-simile of his. 
In Gould's collection is a specimen said to have been 
found at San Diego. The species has been attributed to 
Central America, but probably through some error. 

Reeve's figure b seems more closely allied to H. areolata 
or H. levis, than to the form figured by Forbes. 

HELIX PANDORA FORBES vol. iii. p. 15, pi. Ixxvi. fig. 8. 

Helix Pandorce REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 671, (1852). 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 467, pi. 156, fig. 17, 18, (1853). 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 127. 

Reeve gives as habitat " Central America." 

The figure given is a fac-simile of the original. I have 

not seen the shell. Below is Gould's description of 

damascenus. 

HELIX DAMASCENUS. T. conico-globosa, imperforata, solidula, dilute 
prunina ad apicem violacea subtus cinerascens, rudis et lineis tenuibus 
interrupts numerosis cincta ; anfr. 5 rotundatis ; sutura impressa : aper- 
tura subeircularis ; peristomate anguste reflexo, pallido, extremitatibus 
approxiraatis ; fauce livida ; columella incrassata, rotundata. 

HELIX UEVIS PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXVI. FIGURE 10. 

Testa perforata, globosa, tenuis, levis, oblique striata, obsolete granu- 
lata, albida, punctis seriatis vel fasciis pellueide corneis varie ornata ; 
spira brevis, acutiuscula; anfr. 5 vix convexiusculi, ultimus inflatus ; 
apertura rotundato-lunaris, intus concolor vel fulvida ; perist. acutum, 
intus sublabiatum, margine columellari superne dilatato, fornicatim re- 
flexo, perforationem fere tegente. Diam. maj. 16, min. 14, alt. 13 mill. 

/3. Margine columellari dente unico, obtuso, calloso instructo. 
Habitat in California, ad Columbia River. [Pfeiffer]. 

Helix levis PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 154; iii. 128. Zietschr, f. Mai. 1845, 

p. 152. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 249, pi. xxxvi. f. 16, 17, (1846). 

I have not seen this species. PfeifFer's description is 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 19 

given above, and a fac-simile of his figure in the second 
edition of Chemnitz is given on the plate referred to. 

HELIX AREOLATA SOWERBY, vol iii. p. 14, pi. Ixxvi. fig. 11; var. y. 

fig. 3. 

Helix areolala PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 127. 

CHEMNITZ, 1. c. 1, 248, (1846). 
KEEVE, Con. Icon. No. 664, (1852). 

The original figure of Pfeiffer is copied on the plate 
referred to from Chemnitz, edition 2. Two varieties are 
mentioned by him. 

"/3. Dente aperturse obsolete. 

"y. Minor, giobosa, dente aperture valido." (fig. 3). 

HELIX VANCOUVERENSIS LEA, vol. ii. p. 166, p. xx. 

Helix Vaneouverensis TROSCHEL, AT. f. Nat. 1839, ii. 221. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 155. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 146, pi. xciv. f. 21-23. 
GOULD, U. S. Expl. Ex. p. 36, fig. 37. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 669 (1852). 

Helix vellicata FORBES, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Mar. 1850, p. 75, pi. ix. fig. 1. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 454, pi. cliv. fig. 42-44. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 673, (1852). 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 155. 

From the description and figure of Forbes, as well as 
from specimens received from Mr. Cuming's collection, 
I am satisfied of the identity of H. vellicata with this 
species. Forbes's description is given below. 

H. t. aperte umbilicata, tenui, convexo-depressa, subnitida, sulcato- 
striata, striis minutissimis spiralibus decussata, laste viridibus ; spira con- 
vexiuscula, anfr. 6, ultimo rotundato, magno, antice dilatato, subdescen- 
dente ; ap. perobliqua, lunato-oblonga ; faux alba, perist. margine subre- 
flexo, superne deflexo-sinuato. Diam. max. 22, min. 18, alt. 8 mill. 
Panama ? 

Distinguished from its near allies by the peculiar deflection of the upper 
portion of the lip margin. 

HELIX SPORTELLA GOULD, vol. ii. p. 211, pi. xxii a. fig. 1. 

Helix sportella GOULD, U. S, Expl. Ex. p. 37, fig. 42. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 104. 

The revolving striee appear to be wanting in some indi- 



20 THE SPECIES OF 

viduals. In the mature shell the peristome is slightly 
reflected, and has the remarkable deflection which charac- 
terizes H. Vancouver ensis and H. concava. 

Found at San Diego by Dr. J. S. Newberry, and in 
Contra Costa Co. by Mr. J. H. Thomson. The latter 
gentleman's notes show the animal to be quite distinct 
from that of H. concava Say, however similar the shells 
may be, with the exception of the striae on the Californian 
species. He writes, " Animal uniformly white or flesh- 
colored, with an orange line on top of back. Solitary 
or only found in pairs." 

HELIX NEWBERRYANA. 

PLATE LXXVI. FIGURE 7. 

Testa late umbilicata ; orbiculato-depressa ; solida ; striis tenuibus in- 
crement! et lineis subtilissimis, spiralibus, leviter granulato-decussata ; 
nigra, aut rufo-brunnea, sub epiderme alba ; sutura valde impressa ; 
spira depressa ; anfr. 6, regulariter accrescentes, super! plani, ultimus 
convexus, subtus rotundatus, ad aperturam descendens ; umbilicus latus, 
perspectivus, anfr. omnes ad apicem monstrans; apertura obliqua, trans- 
verso-lunaris ; in exemplis junioribus, paries aperturalis, sculptura anfr. 
prsecedentis callo lev! obliterate,, eleganter notata est lineis elevatis, nu- 
inerosis, confertis, spiralibus ; in exemplis maturis, haec sculptura occulta 
est callo incrassato, sed intus in anfr. omnibus remanet ; perist. simplex, 
acutum, intus callosum, marginibus sub-convergentibus, callo albo con- 
junctis. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 



Helix Newberryana W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. of Phila. x. p. 115, 
Notes, p. 16. May, 1858. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell broadly umbilicated ; orbicularly depressed ; solid ; 
lightly decussated by incremental striae, and numerous 
fine spiral lines : color black or reddish-brown, under the 
epidermis white and shining ; suture deeply impressed ; 
spire depressed ; whorls 6, regularly increasing, the upper 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 21 

ones flattened, the last convex, rounded below, and slightly 
deflected at the aperture ; umbilicus broad, showing all 
the volutions clearly ; aperture oblique, transversely-lunar ; 
in young specimens the decussated sculpturing of the shell 
on the parietal wall of the aperture is covered with a light 
callus as the animal grows, and elegantly marked with 
numerous fine, crowded, spiral lines ; in mature specimens 
this beautiful marking is entirely obliterated by the depo- 
sition of callus, but on breaking the shell, the lines will be 
found to exist within ; peristome simple, acute, thickened 
within, ends slightly approximated, joined with a white 
callus. 

Greater diameter, 37 ; lesser, 20 ; height, 13 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found in considerable quan- 
tity by Dr. J. S. Newberry, of the Colorado Exploring 
Expedition, (Lieut. Ives,) within a few miles of San 
Diego. 

Remarks. This species bears no close resemblance to 
any known American Helix. It belongs to the same 
group as H. Vancouver ensis Lea, but differs in size, color, 
number of whorls, umbilicus, want of peculiar depression 
of the lip, by its beautifully decussated surface, and pecu- 
liar parietal wall of the aperture. In form alone, dead 
specimens may be compared with H. algira Lin., of 
Europe, but the spire is flatter and umbilicus larger. 

I am unacquainted with any other species of Helix, 
distinguished by a like peculiarity of the parietal wall of 
the aperture. 

Named in honor of Dr. J. S. Newberry, the Geologist of 
the Colorado Ex. Ex. 

Very abundant at the locality given above. But few 
fresh specimens were brought, however, owing to the fact 
of there having been a drought for several years before the 
visit of the Expedition. 



22 THE SPECIES OF 

HELIX CULTELLATA THOMSON. 
PLATE LXXVI. FIGURE 6. 

Testa orbiculato-depressa, nitens, carinata, corneo-rufescens, ad peri- 
pheriam et ad suturas albo-zonata ; anfr. 6^ convexiusculi, striis minutis 
incrementalibus at lineis microscopicis spiralibus decussati ; sutura im- 
pressa, apertura oblique lunaris ; perist. simplex, acutum, ad columellam 
vix reflexiusculum ; subtus lasvigata, albida, infra carinam late rufo-corneo- 
zonata ; umbilicus perspectivus, anfr. omnes ad apicem monstrans. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix cultellata THOMSON, in Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sc. ix. p. 185, Oct. 1857; 
Notes, p. 5. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal twice the length of the diameter of the shell ; 
color reddish. 

Shell orbicular, depressed, carinated, shining, reddish 
horn color, with a broad revolving band of white at the 
periphery and sutures ; whorls 6^, rather convex, decussated 
by minute lines of growth and microscopic revolving lines ; 
below these lines are obsolete, the surface is shining, whit- 
ish, with a broad reddish horn-colored band below the 
carina ; suture impressed ; aperture oblique, lunate ; peris- 
tome acute, not thickened and scarcely reflected at the 

v 

umbilicus, which is broadly expanded, and shows all the 
volutions to the apex. 

Greater diameter, 35 ; lesser, 19 ; height, 13 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found plentifully in Contra 
Costa Co., California, by Mr. J. H. Thomson, of New 
Bedford, Mass. 

Remarks. Mr. J. H. Thomson, of New Bedford, Mass., 
proposes this name for a shell found by him living in con- 
siderable quantities. The circumstances in which it was 
discovered are very unfavorable to the supposition of its 
having been brought from abroad. The chances of a 
Dalmatian shell having been introduced into California, 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 23 

and already multiplying there, are very small indeed. At 
the same time the shell before me bears strong resemblance 
to the European group of this type. It seems to be be- 
tween H. albanica Ziegler, and acies Partsch ; the carina 
being less sharp than in the latter. Mr. Thomson suggests 
that it may have been imported from the Sandwich Islands 
on vegetables, but there is no species native to that region 
which bears any resemblance to this. 

Since the publication of this species in the Proceedings 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences, my doubts of its 
being a native of California have been materially lessened 
by the discovery of the allied species, Helix Newberryana, 
from the same Zoological region. The resemblance of 
H. cultellata to the group of Eastern Europe is quite re- 
markable, yet our knowledge of the Mollusks of the 
Pacific Coast is still too imperfect to allow us to consider 
this as a unique example of resemblance between species 
of the two regions. 

HELIX STRIGOSA GOULD vol. ii. p. 210, pi. xxvi. 

Helix sti'igosa GOULD, U. S. Ex. Ex. p. 36, fig. 41. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 112; Maine. Blatt. 1857, 32. 

" Rocky Mountains in New Mexico." (Pfeiffer). 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Helix Sagraiana Orbigny, a Cuban species, is erroneously attrib- 
uted to California (on the authority of Sowerby) by Pfeiffer 
(Mon. i. 325) and Carpenter (Report, p. 214). 

EXTRA LIMITAL SPECIES. 

The following species have not yet been found within the terri- 
tory of the United States, though they are known to exist in the 
neighboring States of Mexico. 

Helix Acutedentata W. G. Binney. Plate Ixxvi. Figure 1, and 
Helix Loisa W. G. Binney. Plate Ixxvi. Figure 2. (Notes 



24 THE SPECIES OF 

No. 2). These are perhaps but varieties of the same species. 

They inhabit Sinaloa, on the banks of the Mazatlan River. 
Helix aspersa, Muller, is said by Forbes (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1850, 

p. 53) to have been found at Santa Barbara. Its presence 

may have been accidental. 
Helix Mazatlanica Pfeiffer, Mai. Blatt. iii. 43, is attributed to 

the locality from which its name is derived. 

GENUS BULIMUS SCOPOLI. 

BULIMUS CALIFORNICUS REEVE. 
PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 15. 

Bui. testa subaeuminato-ovata, tenuieula, vix umbilicata, anfr. 6, laevi- 
bus, colutnella reflexa, labro simplici ; lactea, zonulis interruptis transversis 
coeruleo nigricantibus cingulata. 

Hob. California. 

There is little novelty in the character or general aspect of this 
species, but it is certainly distinct. (Reeve). 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 



Bulimus Californicus REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 378, (Dec. 1848). 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 422. 

Remarks. I have seen no authentic specimen of this 
species. Above is Reeve's description, and his figure is 
given on the plate referred to. Judging from them, I can- 
not agree with the opinion expressed by Gould (vol. ii. 
p. 275) that it is identical with B. serperastrus. The fig- 
ure is one half larger than the natural size of the shell. 

BULIMUS EXCELSUS GOULD. 

PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 12. 

T. elongato-ovata, acuminata, solidiuscula, laevis, fulvida, albido 
strigata; spira elevata, peracuta, anfr. 7, ultimo trientes duos long, vix 
sequante : apertura trientem long, adequans, sub-ovata ; labro albo antice 
revoluto, subcontinuo, ad columellam expanse, fissuram latam obtegente. 

Bulimus excelsus GOULD, Jouvn. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vol. vi. part 3, p. 376, pi. 

xiv. fig. 3, (Oct. 1853). 
Bulimus elatus GOULD, 1. c. in tab. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, rather solid, smooth, pale coffee-colored, 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 25 

with unequal longitudinal striga3 of white shading into each other, 
white at suture ; spire acute, elongated ; whorls seven, moderately 
convex, the last not quite two thirds the length of the shell ; aper- 
ture less than half the length of the shell, obliquely subovate, lip 
soon becoming revolute, broadly so in front, rising, a little nar- 
rowed by a somewhat abrupt curve upon the columella, and ex- 
panding again as it rises, until the two extremities of the lip nearly 
meet ; the columellar portion stands off from the body whorl, dis- 
playing a large umbilical fissure ; lip white, with a brown submargin 
at the point of reflection. 

Length, 1|- inch ; breadth, ^ inch. 

Inhabits California. Maj. Rich. 

This shell has very much the appearance of B. Lobbii Reeve, 
from Peru ; but the aperture is larger and differently proportioned ; 
the colors are less bright, the stripes broader and more blended. 
B. pallidior Sowerby, has the aperture more like it. but is colorless, 
and has the spire less elongated. In form it is also much like 
B. xanthostoma D'Orb. It has the form of B. membranaceus, but 
is much larger and thicker. 

This is Gould's description. His figure is given in the 
plate referred to. I have not seen the shell. 

EXTRA LIMITAL. 1 

Bulimus chordatus Pfeiffer, 
Humboldti Reeve, 
Mexicanus Lamarck, 
Zebra Miiller, 
Ziegleri Pfeiffer, 
have been detected in Cinaloa. 
Bulimus vegetus Gould, was found at San Juan, Gulf of California, 

(Bost. Journ. vi. 375). 

Bulimus vesicalis Gould, (1. c. Oct. 1853) "inhabits lower Cali- 
fornia." This name being preoccupied by a species described by 
Pfeiffer, (March, 1853,) Gould suggests sufflatus in its stead. 

1 Bulimus Laurentii Sowerby, var. /?, is mentioned by Pfeiffer (Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 
218) as inhabiting " Sitka littoris Americas occidentals. " Whether he refers to 
the Sitka of the northwest coast, or some South American locality, I do not know. 

4 



26 THE SPECIES OF 

GENUS ACHATINA LAMARCK. 

ACHATINA CALIFORNICA PFEIFFEK. 
PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 19. 

Testa subulata, tenuis, oblique confertissime rugoso-striata, cereo-al- 
bida: anfr. 12-13, summi convex!, 3-4 ultimi planati, ultimus 1-6 longitu- 
dinis paulo superans, basi acute carinatus, infra carinam subexcavatus ; 
columella arcuata, basin attingens, incrassata, subtruncata ; apertura sub- 
tetragona ; perist. simplex, acutum. Long. 23, diam. 3^ mill. Ap. 4 mill, 
long. 2i lata. (Pfr.) 

Achatina Californica PFEIFFER, Symb. ad. Hist. Hel. 3, p. 89 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. 

ii. 267, iii. 501. 
EEEVE, Con. Icon. 115, (Mar. 1850). 

Remarks, I have not seen this species, which is said 
to inhabit " Monterey, California." The figure I have 
given is a copy of Reeve's reduced to the natural size 
of the shell. 

EXTRA LIMITAL. 

GENUS GLANDINA SCHUMACHER. 
Glandina Albersi, Pfeiffer, and 

G. turris, Pfeiffer, are included by Carpenter in the Catalogue 
of the Riegen Collection, (p. 175). 

FAMILY AURICULACEA. 

SUB-FAMILY MELAMPEA. 
GENUS MELAMPUS MONTFORT. 

MELAMPUS OLIVACEUS CARPENTER. 
PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 8. 

M. t, parva, sublasvi, conoidea, spira depressa, infra suturam indis- 
tinctam obscure angulata ; albida, fusco-purpureo irregulariter tesselata, 
epidemic adhserente, obivacea induta ; anfr. 7 vix niostrantibus, planatis ; 
apertura longa, angusta, ad marginem fusco-purpurea, intus alba ; labro 
ad marginem acuto, intus dentato, dentibus in liras acutas, in adulta 
saepe obsoletas, decurrentibus ; labio tenui, plica una parietali, transver- 
sa, inter denticulas duas sita, in juniore denticulis numerosis intus condi- 
tis ; columella plica una obliqua, ad basin excurrente ; parietibus internis 
in adulta absorptis. (Carpenter, 1. c.) 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 27 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Melampus olivaceus CARPENTER, in Riegen Cat. of British Museum, p. 178. 

anno. 1857. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not yet observed. 

Shell small, rather smooth, conical ; spire depressed, ob- 
tusely angulated below the suture, which does not dis- 
tinctly separate the whorls ; color dirty white, with irregu- 
lar patches or revolving lines of dark red or purplish ; 
epidermis olive-colored ; on young or very fresh specimens 
there are sometimes microscopic revolving lines near the 
base of the shell, and on the spire, which cross the delicate 
lines of growth so as to present under the microscope a 
granulated surface ; whorls 7 to 9, the upper ones distin- 
guished only by means of the lens, and flattened ; aperture 
long, equalling ^ of the shell, edge variegated in color by 
the termination of the reddish bands on the white ground 
of the shell, within white ; the outer lip is furnished with 
numerous sharp, white laminae, in the specimens before 
me varying from 1 to 9 ; the parietal wall of the aperture 
is covered with an almost imperceptible, shining, callus ; 
there is one constant, prominent, elevated white tooth- 
like lamina revolving within the shell, which is usually 
placed within two smaller shorter ones ; on the columella 
there is also a stouter lamina entering into the aperture, 
and passing outwards and curving downwards so as to 
join the termination of the labium. 

Long. 13; diam. 18 mill. 

Geographical Distribution. Mazatlan, (Riegen Cat. 
not uncommon,) San Diego, (Mr. W. P. Blake, in Smith- 
sonian Collection). 

Remarks. This is the first species of the family Auri- 
culacea found on the Pacific coast of North America. 
There were numerous specimens found by M. Riegen, 
which Mr. Carpenter describes as distinguished generally 



28 THE SPECIES OF 

by the olive-green epidermis, variegated with purplish- 
brown patches. I find the number of laminae in the 
aperture very variable, but the two prominent ones on the 
labium are constant in all the individuals I have had the 
opportunity of examining. 

Mr. Carpenter (1. c.) says that M. Mork has labelled this 
in Mr. Cuming's collection " Melampus bidentatus Say," 
and justly adds that it is much more nearly allied to 
Melampus coffeus Lin. It seems to me, however, to be a 
peculiarly well marked species. 

The figure is taken from a specimen in the cabinet 
of the Boston Society of Natural History, labelled by Mr. 
Carpenter. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Prof. S. F. Baird for 
specimens of this species. 

FAMILY ACICULACEA. 

GENUS TRUNCATELLA Risso. 

TRUNCATELLA CALIFORNICA PFEIFFER. 

PLATE LXXIX. FIGURES 20, 22. 

T. non-rimata, turrito-cylindracea, truncata, tenuiscula, leviter stri- 
ata, parum nitens, pallide rubello-cornea ; spira sursum vix attenuata ; 
sutura simpliciter marginata ; anfr. superst. 4 convex!, sensim accres- 
centes, ultimus basi non compressus ; apertura verticalis, ovalis, superne 
vix angulata ; perist. simplex, continuum, margine dextro expanse, 
superne sub-repando, colurnellari adnato. [Pf] 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Truncatella Californica PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, May, 1857, p. Ill; 

Mon. Pneum, Viv. ii. p. 7. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell imperforate, cylindrical, truncated at tip, thin and 
translucent with light striae, shining, amber-colored ; 
spire in the perfect state of the shell composed of about 



THE PACIFIC COAST. 29 

10 whorls, of which 4 only are not deciduous ; these are 
convex, increasing in size rather rapidly ; aperture oval, 
vertical, rounded above ; peristome simple and continu- 
ous, slightly expanded, its pillar margin scarcely attached 
to the shell. 

Length 4f , diam. If mill. 

Geographical Distribution. San Diego, California. 

Remarks. This is the only Truncatella yet found on 
the western coast, excepting, perhaps, the doubtful species 
from Mazatlan mentioned in the Riegen Catalogue, 
p. 364. 

It is readily distinguished by its amber or deep honey 
color, and its shining surface nearly unbroken by ribs. 
The bars are numerous, and are distinguished rather by 
making the shell more opaque than by their prominence. 

I am indebted to Mr. Cuming for the figure I have 
given of a specimen in his collection, and to Dr. Gould 
for specimens of the shell. 

This is the Truncatella gracilenta mentioned in the 
Errata of Vol. X. Phila. Proc. That name was proposed 
by Gould before meeting with PfeifTer's description. 



2. THE SPECIES EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 

FAMILY LIMACEA. 

GENUS VAGINULUS FERUSSAC. 
VAGINULUS FLORIDIANUS BINNEY vol. ii. p. 17, pi. Ixvii. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

The following species are catalogued by Grateloup among the 
American Vaginuli, (Dist. Geog. des Limaciens, p. 22). They 
were all described by Rafinesque, and by him placed in his genus 
Philomycus. From the general inaccuracy of that author, as well 



30 LIMACEA. 

as the deficiency of the descriptions, I think they should be excluded 
from this or any genus. 

Vaginulus flexuolaris, Vaginulus oxyurus, 

" fuscus, " quadrilus. 

GENUS TEBENNOPHORUS BINNEY. 

The first accurate description of this genus was pub- 
lished by Binney in 1841, (Proc. Boston Soc. p. 51). I 
have therefore given preference to the name he proposed 
over that of Rafinesque usually adopted. (Vol. II. p. 19). 

Since the publication of the " Terrestrial Mollusks," the 
name Tebennophorus has been retained in this country by 
Stimpson (Shells of N. E.) and by Grateloup, abroad. 
On the other hand, Philomycus has been adopted in 
Adams's Genera of Recent Mollusca, where the charac- 
teristics of the mantle are correctly given ; and in the 
British Museum Catalogue of Pulmonata. 

TEBENNOPHORUS CAROLINENSIS Bosc. vol. ii. p. 20, pi. Ixiii. fig. 1, 2. 

Limax Carolinensis MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. 
Limax marmoratus DEKAY, absq. desc. 

LINSLEY, Shell of Conn. 9. 
Philomycus Carolinensis GRAY and PFIEFFER, Brit. Mus. Cat. Pulm. 

H. and A. ADAMS, Genera, ii. p. 220. June, 1855. absq. 

desc. 
Tebennophorus Carolinensis DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 24. 

STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. p. 56, absq. desc. 

In 1842 (Boston J. N. H. iv. 2) Dr. Binney referred the 
Limax Carolinensis of Bosc to this genus. His descrip- 
tion was the first correct one ever published. I have 
therefore retained the name he proposed for it. 

Rafinesque's Genus Philomycus bears an earlier date 
than Tebennophorus. His description appears to me in- 
sufficient to warrant this species being referred to his 
genus, as it has been in the works referred to in the 
synonymy. 

From letters of Dr. Newcomb to Dr. Binney (1845) it 
appears probable that Limax marmoratus of De Kay's ear- 



LIMACEA. 31 

Her report (1839, p. 31) and Linsley's Shells of Connecti- 
cut (p. 9) are to be referred to this species. Its characters 
are also given by Adams, in Silliman's Journal, vol. 40, 
p. 275, (1841). I have also in my possession unpublished 
notes of Say in which he accurately describes this species, 
and points out the defects of Ferussac's and Rafinesque's 
descriptions of Philomycus and Eumelus. 

For anatomy of this species, vid. Wyman, Boston Soc. 
Proc. i. p. 154. 

It is found sparingly in Burlington Co., New Jersey. 

TEBENNOPHORUS DORSALIS BINNEY vol. ii. p. 24, pi. Ixiii. fig. 3. 

Philomycus dorsalis BINNEY, Proc. Boston Soc. 1841, p. 52. 

GRAY and PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Cat. of Pulmonata. 

ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll. ii. p. 220. absq. desc. 
Limax dorsalis DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 22. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Tebennophorus bilineatus Cart., of Grateloup (Dist. Geog. p. 30) is 
unknown to me. 

GENUS ARION FERUSSAC. 

ARION HORTENSIS FERUSSAC vol. ii. p. 27, pi. Ixiv. fig. 1, Ixv. fig. 2. 

Arion hortensis DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 23. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Arion empiricorum Ferussac is quoted as an inhabitant of the 
Western United States by Grateloup, (Dist. Geog. des Lima- 
ciens, p. 8). It has not been noticed by any American writer. 

Arion foliolatus Gould is erroneously ascribed to Boston by the 
same author, (p. 8). It is an inhabitant of the Pacific Coast. 

GENUS LIMAX FERUSSAC. 
LIMAX VARIEGATUS DRAPANAUD vol. ii. p. 34, pi. Ixv. fig. 1. 

Limax Jlavus DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 21, pi. i. fig. 5. 
GRAY and PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Cat. 

LIMAX AGRESTIS MULLER vol. ii. p. 36, pi. Ixiv. f. 2. 

Limax agrestis DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 20, pi. i. fig. 4. 



32 HELICEA. 

Morch (Moll. Groenl. p. 75) quotes this species as an 
inhabitant of Greenland. 

LIMAX CAMPESTRIS BINNEY vol. ii. p. 41, pi. Ixiv. fig. 3. 

Limax campestris BINNEY, Proc. Boston Soc. 1841, p. 52. 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 23. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Limax Columbianus Gould, is quoted erroneously by Grateloup 
(Dist. Geog. des Limaciens, p. 14) as inhabiting the Northern and 
Western States. It is found only on the Pacific Coast. 
Limax fuliginosus Gould, and 
Limax olivaceus Gould, are erroneously quoted by the same 

author (p. 30) as American. 

Limax lineatus DeKay, is mentioned byname only, (vol. ii. p. 33). 
Limax gracilis Rafinesque, of Grateloup and Gray and Pfeiffer, is 
Deroceras gracilis of the following list. 

Of the following species of Rafinesque, Nos. 1, 2,. and 3 are quoted 
in Grateloup's Catalogue, and No. 4-10 are described in the Brit- 
ish Museum Catalogue of Pulmonata. The original description of 
these species is given in vol. i. p. 51, et seq. 

1. Eumelus 6. Philomycus 

2. lividus, 7. " flexuolaris, 

3. " nebulosus, 8. " fuscus, 

4. Deroceras 9. " oxyurus, 

5. gracilis, 10. " quadrilus. 
Gray and Pfeiffer also ascribe to Rafinesque the genera Testa- 

cina, Urcinella, and Zilotea. I have never met with any descrip- 
tion of them, and therefore exclude them with the others as 
unworthy of a place in the Catalogue of American Pulmonata. 

FAMILY HELICEA. 

GENUS VITRINA DRAPANAUD. 

VITRINA ANGEL.ICLE BECK. 

PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 9. 

Testa convexiusculodepressa, lasvigata, nitida, pellucida, virenti-lutea ; 
spira parvula, sub-pro ininula ; sutura subtiliter crenulata ; anfr. 3^ rapide 
accrescentes, ultimus subtus latus; apertura obliqua, lunato-ovalis ; perist. 



VITRINA. 33 

simplex, subinflexum, margine columellari non recedente, leviter arcu- 
ato. Diam. maj. 6 ; min. 4| ; alt. 3 mill. [Pfeiffer]. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Vitrina Angelica, BECK, Index, p. 1 (absq. desc.) 

MOLLER, Index Moll. Grcenl. p. 4, (teste Pfr.) 
PFEFFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. p. 510. 
MORCH nat. Bidr. af Gron. p. 75 (absq. desc.) 

Helix pdlucida FABRICIUS, Fauna Groenl. p. 389, excl. Syn. Miiller. 

Helix domestica STROM, Der Tronh. Vidensk. &c. vol. iii. p. 435, tab. vi. 

fig. 15, (teste Fabricius). 

Geographical Distribution. Found in Greenland. Arch- 
angel (Fabricius). 

Remarks. " Closely resembling V. pellucida, being scarce- 
ly distinguished by the more rapidly enlarging whorls, and 
the form of the aperture." (Pfeiffer, 1. c.) I have not seen 
this species. The figure I have given was drawn from 
a specimen in Mr. Cuming's collection. 

Fabricius referred this species to V. pellucida Miiller. 
His description is given below. I have not been able to 
obtain access to Strom's description. 

HELIX PELLUCIDA (Fabricius, 1. c.) Helix testa imperforata, de- 
pressiuscula nitida, subvirescente, anfr. tribus. Descriptioneni hujus 
exactissimam ap. Mull, de Verm. 1. c. habemus. Vertex in meis omnibus 
albus, reliquum testse albidovirescens. Anfractus maximus verticaliter 
plures strias subtiles subeminentes habet, ad suturam notabiliores. 

VITRINA LJMPIDA GOULD vol. ii. p. 58, pi. Ixvii. a, fig. 1. 

Vitrina pelludda DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 25, pi. iii, fig. 4, 5 a. b. 

STIMPSON Shells of N. E. p. 55, (absq. descr.) Say (Binney) 

p. 31. 

Vitrina Americana PFEIFFER, Dec. 1852, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 156. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 9, pi. i. fig. 22-25, (1854). 

Vitrina limpida GOULD, in Agassiz, Lake Superior, p. 243, 1850. Terr. Moll. 1. c. 
PFEIFFER, Malac. Blatt. ii. p. 10, (1856). 

In 1850 this species was declared to be distinct from the 
European V. pellucida by Gould. In 1852 a description 
of it was published by Pfeiffer under the name of V. 
Americana. That author has since withdrawn his name 
in favor of Gould's. 



34 HELICEA. 

Say changed his opinion of the identity of this species 
and V. pellucidd) subsequently to the publication of Long's 
Expedition. Among his notes, kindly furnished me by 
Mrs. Say, is a description of it under the name of Helico- 
limax canaliculata. The description was never published. 

Stimpson (1. c.) observes, " This being a boreal species, 
occurring in Greenland, it is probable that it is identical 
with the European one to which it was referred by Mr. 
Say." 

GENUS SUCCINEA DRAPANAUD. 
SUCCINEA CAMPESTRIS SAY vol. ii. p. 67, pi. Ixvii. b, fig. 1. 

Succinea campestris SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 12. 

PFEIFFER, Symb. ii. p. 56, (excl. Syn. Gould); Mon. Hel. 
Viv. ii. p. 524, (excl. do.); iii. p. 15, (excl. 
Syn. DeKay). 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 48, pi. v. f. 5, 6, (1854). 
DESHAYES in Fer. ii. p. 139, nee DeKay, p. 54; Adams, 
Linsley, Anthony, Prescott, (abs. desc.) 

In Chemnitz, Pfeiffer, and Deshayes, S. campestris Gould 
is erroneously quoted as a synonym of this species. 

Bishop Elliott discovered in the old cemetery at Savan- 
nah a variety, distinguished by a beautiful golden apex 
and uniform amber color. 

Authentic specimens of this species are still preserved 
in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences. 

SUCCINEA INFLATA LEA vol. ii. p. 66, pi. Ixxx. fig. 11. 

Having examined the original specimen of this shell in 
Mr. Lea's cabinet, I am inclined to doubt its specific 
weight. I have, however, had an outline of his specimen 
figured, and propose to leave to the future the question of 
its identity with S. campestris Say. 

Succinea inflata LEA. 1. c. 1841; Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. ix. p. 5, (1844). 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. p. 526; iii. p. 16. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 49, pi. v. fig. 9-11, (1854). 
Succinea campestris var. BINNEY, vol. ii. p. 67. 



SUCCLNEA. 35 

Pfeiffer observes that the specimens which he describes 
were received from Griffith, and agree with Femssac's fig- 
ure of S. campestris. 

The same author mentions a variety " Unicolor, corneo- 
lutea," from the vicinity of New Orleans. 

SUCCINE A OBLIQUA SAY vol. ii. p. 69, pi. Ixvii. b, fig. 3. 

Succinea obliqua SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 32, pi. Ixxiv. f. 7. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 47, pi. v. fig. 1, 2, (1854). 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. p. 15. 
Succinea ovalis SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 8. 

ADAMS, Shells of Vermont, p. 6, (1842). 

DESHAYES, in Encycl. Meth. ii. p. 20; Fer. Hist. 1. c, ii. p. 139, 

(excl. syn. Gould). 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. p. 524; iii. p. 15, (excl. syn. Gould). 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 48, pi. v. fig. 3, 4. 
Succinea lineata DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 53, pi. iv. f. 51. 
Succinea campestris of all American authors except Say. 

Pfeiffer in 1841 (Symb. i. p. 7) says of Succinea obliqua^ 
" An potius Linnaeus." In 1853 he describes it as a Sue- 
cine a. 

It has been found at Ottawa City, Canada, (J. H. Red- 
field), and in the basin of the Red River of the North, 
(Robert Kennicott). 

SUCCINEA TOTTENIANA LEA vol. ii. p. 65, 72, pi. Ixvii. b, fig. 2. 

Succinea Tolteniana LEA, Proc. Phil. Soc. ii. p. 32, (1841); Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. ix. 

p. 4, (1844). 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. p. 526 ; iii. p. 15, 

GOULD, in Terr. Moll. 1. c. 
Succinea obliqua BINNEY, var. 1. c. 

I agree entirely with Lea and Gould in separating this 
shell from S. obliqua. Its characteristics are constant and 
well marked in specimens, in my cabinet, obtained from 
Newport, R. I. (Lea) ; Maine, (Binney) ; Greenwich, N. Y. 
(Ingalls) ; and Marblehead, Mass. (J. P. Haskell). 

SUCCINEA AVARA SAY vol. ii. p. 74, pi. Ixvii. c, fig. 4. 

Succinea avara SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 32, pi. 74, f. 6. 

PFEIFFER, Symb. ii. p. 56; Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. p. 525, iii. p. 15. 



36 HELICEA. 

Succinea avara DE KAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 54, pi. iv. fig. 55. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 51, pi. v. fig. 18-20, (1854). 
Succinea Wardiana PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. p. 525; iii. p. 15. 
LEA, Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. ix. p. 3, (1844). 

Pfeiffer (1. c.) gives Lea's description of S. Wardiana, 
marking the species as one he had not seen. 

Specimens which are apparently referable to S. avara 
have been found at Alexandria, La. (Coll. Lea), and at 
St. Simon's Isle, Ga. (Postell). 

I have found this species under logs, at great distances 
from any water. In this respect its habits differ from 
those of the other Succinece of America. 

In my Notes, No. 4, 1 have catalogued Succinea vermeta 
separately. I am not at all convinced of its identity with 
this species. I have never seen any specimen answering 
Say's description of the suture. It seems best, however, 
to leave S. vermeta in the synonymy of S. avara, where it 
has been placed by Binney, Gould, Adams, De Kay, and 
Pfeiffer. The original description is given below. 

It is very certain that the large variety of S. avara is 
not S. vermeta, though usually known by that name. It 
sometimes reaches the length of 13 millimetres. I have 
it from Ohio, Utica, N. Y. (Jewett), and Mohawk, N. Y. 
(Lewis). 

Say's original specimens of S. avara are preserved in 
the Philadelphia Academy. 

SUCCINEA VERMETA (Binney's ed. p. 38). Shell suboval, yellowish, 
very thin and fragile, somewhat diaphanous, with nearly three very ob- 
lique volutions ; whorls very much rounded-, wrinkled ; suture very pro- 
foundly impressed ; spire rather prominent and acute ; aperture ovate, 
the superior termination rounded. 

Inhabits margins of ponds near New Harmony. 

This species is remarkable for the very deep indentation of its suture, 
giving to the whorls of the spire the appearance of being almost sepa- 
rated from resting on each other ; and by this character it may be readily 
distinguished from the other species of this country. It was found by Dr. 
Troost. (Say). 



SUCOINEA. 37 

STJCC1NEA AUREA LEA vol. ii. p. 76, pi. Ixvii. c. fig. 3. 

Succinea aurea LEA, Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. ix. p. 4, (1844). 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 525; iii. 15. 
Succinea ova'iis var. ANTHONY, Shells of Ohio. 1843. 

It has been found on Goat Island, Niagara Falls, (T. 
Bland.) 

SUCCINEA OVALIS GOULD, non SAY vol. ii. p. 78, pi. Ixvii. a. fig. 3. 

The only other reference to this species is in Gould's 
Invertebrata and perhaps in Adams's Shells of Vermont. 
Other authors have confounded it with Say's species. 

I have specimens from Wisconsin, (Lapham) ; South 
Illinois (Kennicott) ; Michigan (Winchel) ; and Burling- 
ton, N. J. 



SUCCINEA RETUSA LEA vol. ii. pp. 65, 66. 

PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 7. 

Succinea retusa LEA, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. vol. v. p. 117, pi. xix. fig. 86, 
(1837). 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 55. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. p. 525. 
Succinea campestris ANTHONY, Ohio Cat. absq. descr. 

If this species were identical with S. ova/is Gould, as 
suggested by Binney, it would take precedence by the 
rule of priority of publication. After examining the 
specimen from which Lea's description was drawn, I 
have decided to consider it a distinct species. The 
figure is a fac-simile of the outline of Lea's. 

Pfeiffer had not seen this species, and DeKay mentions 
it among the extralimital species. 

Lea remarks, (1. c.) " It differs so much from any of the 
described species, in the dilatation and retraction of the 
inferior part of the aperture, that I have not hesitated to 
consider it new." 



38 HELICEA. 

SUCCINEA GROENLANDICA BECK. 
PLATE LXXX. FIGURE 4. 

T. oblonga, solidula, striatula, vix nitidula, pallide cornea, albido- 
strigata; spira scalaris, papillata; anfr. 3, penultimus perconvexus, ulti- 
mus | longitudinis subaequans ; columella substricte recedens ; apertura 
ovalis ; perist. simplex, margine dextro arcuato. Long. 8 ; lat. 5^ ; 
alt. 3 mill. Ap. 5^ mill, longa, 3^ lata. (Pfeiffer). 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Succinea Groenlandica BECK, Ind. abs. desc. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 529; iii. 20. 
MOLLER, Ind. Moll. Groenl. p. 4, (teste Pfr.) 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell elongated, rather heavy, lightly wrinkled, of a 
light horn color, mixed with white ; spire scalariform, 
bulbous ; whorls 3, the penultimate quite convex, the last 
equalling about f the length of the shell ; columella reced- 
ing and narrowed, covered with a white callus ; aperture 
oval ; peristome simple, the right margin curved. 

Greatest length 8, breadth 5, millimetres. Length of 
the aperture 5^, breadth 3 1. 

Geographical Distribution. Greenland (Moller, Morch, 
&c.) 

Remarks. This species is easily distinguished by its 
bulbous, turretted spire, and by its light horn color, broken 
by longitudinal white vittse. When the epidermis is 
removed, the shell is of a dead white. The specimen 
figured is in Mr. Eland's collection. 

SUCCINEA LINEATA. 

PLATE LXXX. FIGURE 5. 

Testa oblongo-ovata, solidior, albida aut cinerea ; spira elevata, acuta ; 
anfractus 3 convex!, lineis parallelis inter rugas incrementales volventi- 
bus ornati ; sutura impressa ; apertura orbiculata-ovata, oviformis, par- 
tem testae dimidiam aequans ; columella plicata, callo albo induta. 



SUCCINEA. 39 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 



Succinea lineata W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. N. S. of Phila. vol. ix. p. 19; 
Notes, p. 1, (February 1857). Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. rol. 
vi. p. 155, (April, 1857). 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell oblong-ovate, with three very convex whorls ; 
spire elevated, acute ; surface marked with irregular wrin- 
kles of growth, between which are coarse parallel revolv- 
ing lines, somewhat removed from each other. Aperture 
large, about as long as one half of the whole length of the 
shell, oval ; columella folded ; a deposition of callus on 
the parietal wall of the aperture. 

Greatest diameter, 6 ; alt. 12 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Collected in considerable 
quantity by Dr. F. V. Hayden, (Yellowstone, Expl. Ex.) 
on high hills near Fort Union, Nebraska Territory. 

Remarks. The specimens collected being dead and 
eroded, it is impossible to say what is the color of the 
shell when fresh. It is probably ashy white, resembling 
the true S. campestris of the Southern States. The re- 
volving lines which distinguish it are most apparent on 
the middle of the body whorl. These are quite coarse, and 
placed at irregular intervals ; on some specimens scarcely 
discernible. The aperture is unlike that of any other of 
our species ; being correctly egg-shaped, it is nearest in 
form to that of S. campestris, but is less expanded. The 
parietal wall of the aperture is unusually horizontal. 

In general aspect it resembles somewhat S. vermeta, 
but is distinguished from that shell by its more oval shape, 
and the greater convexity of the whorls. It is the heaviest 
American species. 

This species must not be confounded with S. lineata 
DeKay. 



40 HELICEA. 

SUCCINEA HAYDENI. 

PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 1. 

Testa elongato-ovalis, tenuis, pellucida, succinea ; spira parva, acuta ; 
anfr. 3 convex!, ultimus rugis levibus incrementalibus et sulcis crassis 
spiralibus, interruptis, inequaliter notatus ; sutura mediocris ; columella 
callo levi induta, apicem interiorera a basi testae monstrans ; apertura 
obliqua, ovalis, 5-7 long, testae aequans, ad basin expansior. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Succinea Haydeni W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. of Phila. x. p. 114. May, 

1858. Notes, p. 15. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal of an uniform amber color, judging from the 
specimens preserved in spirits in the collection of the 
Smithsonian Institute. 

Shell elongate-oval, thin, shining, amber-colored ; spire 
short, acute ; whorls three, convex, the last marked with 
the wrinkles of growth, and irregular, heavy, spiral fur- 
rows ; suture moderate ; columella covered lightly with 
callus, and allowing all the interior whorls to be seen 
from below to the apex ; aperture oblique, oval, 5-7ths the 
length of the shell, the lower portion of its margin con- 
siderably expanded. 

Length 21 ; diameter 9 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found in considerable num- 
bers by Dr. F. V. Hayden, the Geologist of the Yellow- 
stone Exploring Expedition, in Nebraska, between the 
rivers Loup Fork and L'eau qui court. 

Var. Minor. Length 15 mill. Found by Mr. Robert 
Kennicott near the Red River of the North. 

Remarks. This is the largest known American Suc- 
cinea. 

Mr. Say describes S. ovalis as showing the interior apex 
from the base of the shell ; in other respects his descrip- 
tion does not apply to this shell. Its aperture is nearer 
that of S. ovalis Gould non Say, but the peristome is 



SUCCINBA. 41 

much more flexuose, and the upper third of the shell be- 
comes gradually attenuated, so as to give a sharp pointed 
appearance, though the spire itself is short. The revolving 
lines are sometimes continuous over the whole body whorl, 
but generally interrupted, or confined to the interstices of 
the incremental striae or wrinkles. It shares this peculiar- 
ity with S. concordialis Gould, and S. lineata nob. 

Named in honor of Dr. F. V. Hayden, the discoverer of 
the species. 

SUCCINE A LUTEOLA GOULD vol. ii. p. 75, pi. Ixvii. c. fig. 1. 

Succinea luteola PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 16. 

Texasiana PFEIFFER, 1. c. vol. ii. p. 526 ; vol. iii. p. 17 ; in Roemer's 

Texas, p. 456. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 42; pi. iv. f. 21-23, (1854). 

PfeifTer (Sept. 1857) writes " My Succinea Texasiana is 
a synonym of luteola Gould. 

SUCCINEA CONCORDIALIS GOULD vol. ii. p. 82, pi. Ixvii. a. fig. 2. 

Succinea concordialis PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. p. 16. 
munita BINNEY, vol. i. 

SUCCINEA EFFUSA SHUTTLEWORTH. 
PLATE LXXX. FIGURE 12. 

T. depresso-ovata, tenuissima, striatula, parum nitens, diapliana, griseo- 
cornea ; spira brevissima, acuta ; anfr. 2, ultimus magnus, depressus, 5-6 
longitudinis aequans, columella vix arcuata, subrecedens ; apertura ampla, 
obliqua, ovalis ; perist. simplex, regulariter arcuatum, basi non incum- 
bens. (Pfr.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Succinea effusa SHUTTLEWORTH, mss. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. p. 17. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 42, pi. iv. fig. 18-20, (1854). 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell depressed-oval, very thin, transparent and shining, 
lightly striated, grayish horn-colored; spire remarkably 

6 



42 HELICEA. 

short, acute ; whorls 2J, the last one very much the largest, 
depressed, equalling f the length of the shell ; columella 
scarcely rounded and hardly receding ; aperture very large, 
oblique and oval ; peristome simple, regularly rounding. 

Length 12, diameter 7 millimetres. Length of the aper- 
ture 10, breadth 6 mill. 

Geographical Distribution. East Florida (Pfeiffer) ; 
Spring Garden, Lake Florida (Eland's Coll.) 

Remarks. It is readily distinguished from the other 
American species by the proportionally short spire, the 
very large body whorl, and expanded aperture. 

STJCCINEA SALLEANA PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 18. 

T. depresso-ovata, tenuissima, striatula, lineis spirallbus impressis ir- 
regulariter notata, pellucida, nitida, corneo-albida ; spira brevissima, sub- 
papillata ; anfr. 2^, penultimus convexus, ultimus | longitudinis superans ; 
columella subcallosa, stricte recedens ; apertura axi subparallela, angulato 
ovalis ; perist. submavginatum, margine dextro vix arcuate. Long. 19, 
diam. 10, alt. 7 mill. Ap. 16 mill, longa, infra medium 9 lata. (Pfeiffer). 

Habitat prope New Orleans. (Salle). 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Succinea Salleana PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Nov. 1849, p. 133 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. 

iii. 16. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 49, pi. 5, fig. 7, 8. 

Remarks. I have not seen this species. The above is 
Pfeiffer's description, and the figure given on pi. 79 is a 
fac-simile outline of that referred to. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Succinea putris, Lin., (DeKay, 1839, p. 31, Fer. Tabl. Syst. p. 9,) 

and 
Succinea amphibia, Drap. (Forbes Br. Ass. 1837, p. 144, Ferussac ; 

Tabl. Syst. ; Binney, vol. ii. p. 159,) have been quoted from 

America. Having never seen a well authenticated specimen of 

either, I omit them. 



HELIX. 43 

GENUS HELIX LINN JF. us. 

I have followed the artificial arrangement of species of 
this genus proposed on p. 92 of vol. ii. 

HELIX MAJOR BINNEY vol. ii. p. 96, pi. 1. 

Helix major DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 45. 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. of Mol. An. pi. 291, fig. 1, abs. desc. ex. Bost. 
Journ. non major Beck, p. 2. 
Helix albolabris y PFEIFFER, Symb. ad Hist. Hel. ii. 22; Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 290. 

C. CHEAINITZ, ed. 2, i. 81, (1846). 
Bdix albolabris DESHAYES, in Fer. in tab. 1. c. 
REEVE, No. 656, (1852). 
BLAND, Notes, p. 50, N. Y. Lyceum, vi. 359. 

Well marked specimens of this species are rare in col- 
lections. It is, perhaps, owing to this fact that so few 
authors have followed Binney in separating it from H. 
albolabris. 

For my own part, I am thoroughly convinced of its 
specific weight. Dr. Newcomb and Dr. Gould agree with 
me. On the other hand, Bland unites the two. It is sub- 
ject to variation as are most of our species, and some in- 
dividuals of H. albolabris may nearly approach some of 
its extreme forms. I am, however, confident of its being 
generally acknowledged as soon as it becomes better 
known. 

The second figure of Ferussac referred to is a correct 
representation of the species. Deshayes makes no men- 
tion of it by name in the text of his continuation of that 
work, but appears to have confounded the two. 

Morch (Cat. Yoldi, p. 7) erroneously gives " H. major, 
Ohio." 

It is catalogued distinct from albolabris by H. and A. 
Adams, ii. 206. 

HELIX ALBOLABRIS SAY vol. ii. p. 99, pi. 11. 

Helix albolabris SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 21, pi. 69, fig. 1. 

ADAMS, in Thompson's Vt. 1, 158, with wood-cut. 



44 HELICEA. 

Helix albolabris CHENU, Bibl. Conch. 3, 23, pi. iii. fig. 3 a. 

PFEIFFER, Symb. ad Hel. Hist. ii. p. 22, Excl. y and d; Mon- 

Hel. Viv. i. 290. Excl. /3 and Y; iii- 269. 
POTIEZ et MICHAUD, Gal. p. 69. 
CHEMNITZ, i. 81, pi. xv. f. 7, 8, (1847). Excl. var. C. and D. pi. 

x. fig. 4, 5. 

KEEVE, Con. Icon. No. 624. 
DESHAYES, in Fer. pi. xliii. fig. 1, 2, 3, 5; i. 137. 
BILLINGS, Canadian Nat. and Geol. 1857, ii. 98, fig. 2, 3. 
BLAND, N. Y. Lye. vi. 358; Notes 49. 

Pfeiffer's var. 7 and d of the Symbolae are respectively 
major and exoleta. In the Monograph his ft is perhaps the 
former, and his 7 certainly is. In Chemnitz ed. nov. he 
figures exoleta as var. D, and places major as C. 

Deshayes in Ferussac's History erroneously gives Flori- 
da and Guadeloupe as the habitat. From his reference 
to Ferussac's plates he seems to confound H. major with 
H. albolabris. 

Petiver mentions this species in Phil. Trans. 1698, p. 
395. 

As already mentioned, Bland unites major to this 
species. 

I have this species from fourteen States. The series 
presents very remarkable variation in the height of the 
spire and in the form of the aperture. From Illinois I 
have a few of a large variety, furnished with a strong, 
tooth-like prominence on the reflected lip, near its col- 
umella extremity. There is a variety, quite common 
among the Pennsylvania Mountains, characterized by a 
strong parietal denticle. It might readily be confounded 
with exoleta, but wants the more ventricose body whorl 
of the latter. It occurs fossil in the Postpleiocene. From 
Natchez Bluff, I have specimens with a remarkably flat- 
tened spire. 

Helix rufa DeKay (N. Y. Moll. p. 44, pi. iii. fig. 
30 a b.) appears to be the young of this species. It cer- 
tainly cannot be placed, even doubtfully, in the synonymy 



HELIX. 45 

of Iccmgata, as Pfeiffer has determined it. The latter 
species does not occur in New York. 

HELIX MULTILINE ATA SAY vol. ii. p. 103, pi. iii. 

Helix multilineata SAY, (Binney ed.) p. 15. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 41. pi. iii. fig. 24. 

PFEIFFER, Syrab. ad Hist. Hel. i. 41 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 290 ; 

iii. 269. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 41, pi. Ixxi. fig. 17-19, (1849). 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 691, (1852). 
DESHAYES, in Fer. i. 113, pi. 1. c. 

I have a variety of this with an open umbilicus. Anoth- 
er, received from Mr. I. A. Lapham, of Wisconsin, is small, 
of an uniform brownish-red, without any revolving lines. 

Another resembles H. Pennsylvanica both in its general 
form and in the shape of the aperture. These, with those 
mentioned on p. 104, are the principal varieties. The ex- 
tremes of size among the specimens in my cabinet are 19 
and 29 mill, in diameter. 

The varieties mentioned by Pfeiffer and Deshayes are 
distinguished merely by the revolving bands. In a large 
suite of specimens it is rare to find two on which these 
bands and lines are similarly arranged. 

It has been found at Lake Canadaigua, N. Y. (Slack). 

HELIX PENNSYLVANICA GREEN vol. ii. p. 105, pi. vii. 

Helix Pennsylvanica DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 41, pi. iii. fig. 34. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 51, t. 73, fig. 4, 5. (Excl. H. clausa). 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 270. (Excl. H. clausa). 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 291, fig. 5, absq. desc. (Ex. 
Bost. Journ.) 

EEEVE, Con. Icon. No. 676. (Excl. syn.) 

BLAND, N. Y. Lye. vi. 299; Notes 23. 
Helix Milchelliana DESHAYES, in Fer. i. 137, pi. xcvii. fig. 4-7, nee 13-1*5. 

Green described this species in 1827, and deposited three 
specimens of it in the collection of the Philadelphia Acad- 
emy, where they are still preserved. In 1837 another de- 
scription and an excellent figure were published by Binney 



HELICEA. 

in a well-known and widely circulating Journal. It is, there- 
fore, surprising that so many authors and collectors have 
confounded it with Helix clausa^ quite a distinct species. 
Such, however, has been the case, as a reference to the 
above synonymy will show. It is, however, well known 
under its correct name by means of the figures published 
by Binney, Reeve, and Chemnitz, ed. 2. Deshayes is the 
only one who has figured it under a wrong name. 

Bland has carefully and correctly arranged the synony- 
my in his valuable " Notes." 

Pfeiffer adds doubtfully to the synonymy H. thyroidus 
var. edentula. Beck, Ind. p. 23. 

Has been found also in Illinois, (Kennicott). 

The following is Green's description: 

Shell subglobose, spire elevated, whorls six or seven, with 
numerous oblique wrinkles or stride, sutures deeply impressed, 
epidermis smooth, and of an olive-brown color, like most of the 
American Helices, umbilicus closed or masked, aperture slightly 
contracted at the base, a small callosity on the inner margin of the 
other lip, near its lower angle ; shell rather more than J- inch in 
diameter. 

This shell resembles the H. clausa of Mr. Say, but may very 
readily be distinguished from that species by the closed umbilicus, 
the number of its whorls, and its general form. This shell is not 
uncommon near Charters Creek, Washington Co., Pa. I obtained 
live or six specimens with but very little trouble ; associates with 
solitaria, profunda and palliata. 

HELIX CLAUSA SAY. . .vol. ii. p. 107, pi. iv. (excepting the outline figures). 

Htlix clausa SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 17, pi. xxxvii. fig. 1. 
CHEMNITZ, Bibl. Concb. iii. 50, pi. xiii. fig. 2. 
REEVE, fig. 694. 

BLAND, N. Y. Lye. vi. 336 ; Notes 27. 
Helix Pennsylvania PFEIFFER, Ex. parte, Symb. ad Hist. Hel. ii. 36; Mon. Hel. 

Viv. i. 291. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 51, ex parte. 
REEVE, ex parte, No. 676. 
Helix MUchelliana CHEMNITZ, 1. c. i. 332, pi. Ivi. fig. 6-8. 



HELIX. 47 

I have differed from the opinion of H. Mitchelliana 
expressed on vol. ii. p. 109. My reasons for so doing will 
be found under that species. The outline figures repre- 
senting it must, therefore, not be confounded with the 
central figures. 

H. clausa Say has not been correctly described nor 
figured by any author but Say and Binney, until the last 
year, when it was correctly treated by Bland. DeKay 
has, indeed, described it as distinct from Pennsylvanica, 
but his figure is little characteristic, and his notes of its 
geographical distribution are incorrect. Reeve's figure 
referred to in the Synonymy may, perhaps, represent this 
species. In the text he confounds it with Pennsylvanica. 

In the second edition of Chemnitz, Pfeiffer appears to 
have described and figured it, though he doubtfully refers 
it to Mitchelliana. 

Say's original specimen is still preserved in the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences. 

The species occurs fossil in the Postpleiocene, and 
is found in the greatest profusion in some portions of 
the South, in what appears to be a semi-fossil condi- 
tion. I have seen fresh specimens from Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Kentucky (Kennicott), Missouri, Wisconsin, Mis- 
sissippi, Alabama (Showalter). 

The rounded, smoother variety, figured in the Boston 
Journal, may be distinguished from the foil owing species 
principally by its perforation. There are forms, also, 
which nearly approach H. bucculenta. 

HELIX MITCHELLIANA LEA. 
PLATE IV. Outline figures. 

T. superne obtuso-conica, inferne inflata, longitudinaliter et sub- 
tiliter striata, cornea, diaphana, imperforata, anfr. 5 ; apertura sub- 
rotundata ; labro reflexo ; columella lasvi. 

Shell above obtusely conical, below inflated, longitudinally and 



48 HELICEA. 

finely striate ; horn color, transparent, imperforate ; whorls 5 ; 
aperture nearly round ; outer lip reflexed ; columella smooth. 

Remarks. I am indebted to Dr. Mitchell for this shell, which 
was sent to him by a friend from Ohio. It is rather larger than 
the H. clausa Say, and H. jejuna Say, but in form resembles them. 
It may be distinguished from the latter in not being perforate, and 
from the former in having a sharper lip. In its strias it is distinct 
from both, in having them larger and much better defined. 

Hob. Ohio. Diam. 7. Length .4 of an inch. [Lea]. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Hdix Mitchelliana LEA, 1. c. 

TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1839, ii. 221. 

DE!VAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 45. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. V. i. 291; iii. 270. 

BLAND, N. Y. Lyceum, vi. 339 ; Notes 29. 
Helix clausa BINNEY, ex parte, p. 109. 

In addition to the above synonymy, Pfeiffer and Bland 
quote doubtfully De Kay's figure of clausa. It is certainly 
little characteristic of either Mitchelliana or clausa. 

Lea's figure is poor, and his remarks had better be en- 
tirely cancelled, having been written under a misappre- 
hension of both the species referred to. 

The figures I have referred to were intended to represent 
this species, and appear to me to do so. My friend Mr. 
Bland, however, refers them to clausa. 

The shell figured by Deshayes under this name is H. 
Pennsylvanica. The figure in Chemnitz represents H. 
clausa. Anthony (Ohio Cat.) places Mitchelliana in the 
synonymy of clausa^ and Kirtland (Ohio Rep.) seems to 
have catalogued it under the name of Mitchella. 

I have never known this species to be found out of 
Ohio, where it appears to be not uncommon. It is 
readily distinguished from clausa by its more globose 
form and smooth, shining surface, its imperforate base, 
and by the following peculiarities pointed out by Bland. 
(1. c.) ' 



HELIX. 49 

u 111 H. clausa the umbilical region is more widely exca- 
vated, and the groove, behind the reflected lip, producing 
the contraction of the aperture, is continued at the base 
of the shell, becoming wider as it joins the umbilical 
opening. In H. Mitchelliana the groove is almost obliter- 
ated at the point of reflection of the lip over the um- 
bilicus, by the more tumid character of the last whorl." 

HELIX BERLANDERIANA MORICAND vol. ii. p. xlix. fig. 1. 

Helix Berlanderiana DESHAYES, 3d ed. Lam. iii, 316. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 275, pi. cxxiii. figs. 15-18. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 227, (nee. i.) 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 708, (1852). 

Helix pacliyloma MENKE in Pfeiffer 1. c. i. 323; Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1847, p. 32. 
Helix virginalis PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 132, i. 165 sub nomine Berlander- 

iance. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, 5. 260, pi. xxxviii. figs. 18, 19. 

There is considerable confusion in the synonymy of this 
species, owing to the extreme varieties having been con- 
sidered distinct species. I have never seen H. virginalis, 
but am persuaded by the description and figure published 
by Pfeiffer in Chemnitz that it is identical with Berlander- 
iana. I give below his description and on pi. 77, fig. 22, 
a fac-simile of his figure. Those persons who follow him 
in separating the two, will remove H. virginalis and its 
references from the above synonymy. In so doing, it 
must be borne in mind that the shell described by him as 
Berlanderiana in vol. i. of the Monograph, is in vol. iii. 
considered virginalis. (See also Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, 
p. 115.) 

PfeifFer acknowledges in vol. iii. that his pachyloma of 
vol. i. is the true Berlanderiana. 

The shell figured on pi. 49 as H. albozonata will be 
treated under the following species. 

The species is found also in Mexico. 

7 



50 HELICEA. 

Moricand's description is given below, as well as Pfeif- 
fer's. 

Helix Berlanderiana. H. t. globosa, perforata, lucida, alba vel cine- 
rea, fascia unica, angusta cincta ; labro exteriori crassiusculo, patulo. 
Long. 8, larg. 7 mill. Mexique, dans Prov. de Texas. 

Cette coquille, tres voisine par sa forme de I'H. tonelus, Fer., est d'un 
blanc sale, formee de 5 tours, le sommet obtus ; tres-finement striee, les 
stries peu sensibles et tres rapprochees ; une bande etroite d'un gris clair, 
transparente, occupe le milieu du dernier tour et se prolonge sur le bord 
exterieur des tours de la spire ; 1'ouverture est semicirculaire ; la levre 
interieure peu apparente, Pexterieure plus epaisse que le reste de la 
coquille, renflee interieurement par un bourrelet, qui la fait paraitre 
evasee, le bord inferieur reflechi sur 1'ombilic dont il couvre la moitie. 
Obs. Les individus que j'ai reQus etaient tous depouilles de leur epiderme. 

Helix virginalis. T. umbilicata, depressa, striata, lucida, alba vel 
cinerea, interdum unifasciata ; anfr. 4^ convexiusculi, ultimus basi ini- 
flatus ; apertura lunato-subcircularis ; perist. acutum, intus labiatum, 
margine columellari juxta umbilicum angustum vix reflexo. Diam. maj. 
8, min. 7, alt. 5| mill. Hab. in Texas. (Vid. pi. 77, fig. 22.) 

HELIX GRISEOLA PFEIFFER. 
PLATE XL1X. FIGURE 2. PLATE LXXVII. FIGURE 20. 

T. umbilicata, depresso-globosa, oblique striatula, nitidula, grisea, 
cingulis pallide fulvis, albo-marginatis circumdata ; spira brevis ; anfr. 
4-41 vix convexiusculi ; umbilicus angustissimus ; apertura lunaris ; 
perist. simplex, album, reflexiusculum, margine columellari subexpanso. 
Diam. maj. 10, min. 8|, alt. 6 mill. (Pfr ) 

Helix griseola PFEIFFER, Symb. Ad. Hist. Hel. i. 41; Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 337, 
iii. 228. 

EEEVE, Con. Icon. No. 327, (1852). 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 342, pi. lx. figs. 17, 18. 
Helix cicercula FERUSSAC in Mus. teste Pfeiffer. 
Helix splendidula ANTON, Verz. p. 36, absq. desc. teste Pfeiffer. 
Helix albocincta BINNEY, i. 128. 
Helix albozonata BINNEY in tab. 
Brandybcena pisum BECK, Index, p. 18, nbs. desc. teste Pfeiffer. 

This is the shell referred to in vol. i. as albocincta, on 
pi. 49, as albozonata, and by Gould, vol. iii. p. 34, as 
albolineata. It would probably have been described as 



HELIX. 51 

distinct from Berlanderiana had the author lived to finish 
his work. Pfeiffer has, however, given its specific weight. 
A fac-simile of his figure in Chemnitz is given (pi. 77, 
fig. 20). 

My specimens are from Texas. It is quoted from Vera 
Cruz, Mexico, by Pfeiffer, who also specifies a Central 
American variety. 

HELIX HORTENSIS MULLER vol. ii. p. Ill, pi. viii. 

Helix subglobosa DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 31, pi. ii. fig. 14, pi. iii. fig. 39. 
nemoralis STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. 54, (abs. desc.) 

Inhabits also Greenland, (Morch,) and perhaps Con- 
necticut, (Linsley, Am. Journ. 48, 280). 

HELIX ASPERSA MULLER vol. ii. p. 117, pi. Ixxvii. fig. 4. 

I am indebted for the shell figured to Dr. L. R. Gibbes, 
of Charleston, S. C. 

HELIX DIVEST A GOULD vol. ii. pp. 122, 357, pi. xiii. a- fig. 2. 

Helix abjecta PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 270. 

HELIX VARIANS MENKE vol. ii. p. 123, pi. xlvi; xlvii; Ixxviii. fig. 22. 

Helix varians MENKE teste Pfeiffer. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 221, pi. cix. figs. 1-5. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 238; iii. 183. 
Helix carnicolor- PFEIFFER, Symb. i. 37. 

FERUSSAC Podr. 293 (absq. desc.) 
DESHAYES, in Fer. i. 205, pi. xxix. A. figs. 14-17. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 283, (1852). 
Helix pisana CHEMNITZ, ix. P. 2. p. 139. t. 132, fig. 1186. 87. Nee Miiller. 

FERUSSAC, Hist. 1. c. ? 
Helix submeris PFEIFFER, Mon. iii. 183. 
Helix rhodocheila BINNEY, olim. 
Hemotrickus hcemostomus SWAINSON, Malac. p. 165, f. 19. ? 

In the Smithsonian Institute are specimens from Key 
Biscayne. 

There can, I think, be no doubt of the identity of H. 
polychroa with H. varians of Porto Rico. Dr. Pfeiffer so 
decided after receiving authentic specimens from me. 



52 HELICEA. 

Mighel's description of submeris is as follows. 

Shell conic-globose, smooth, incremental strise distinct, apex sub- 
acute ; spire elevated, whorls 5^, suture distinct, epidermis dark chest- 
nut or mahogany colored, mottled, with an interrupted white zone 
around the body whorl ; convex beneath, umbilicus minute, the region 
white ; lip simple, thickened within ; internal lip blending with the last 
whorl, and, with the inner margin of the outer lip, of a beautiful rose 
tint. Height 1^ inch; breadth the same; depth | inch. Hab. Key 
West. Florida, 

Pfeiffer (1. c.) merely gives a Latin version of this de- 
scription, never having seen the shell. 

HELIX EI.EVATA SAY vol. ii. p. 126, pi. iv. 

Helix elevala SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 27, pi. 37, fig. 2. 

DEKAY, 1. c. p. 36, pi. iii. fig. 20. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2. i. 56, pi. vii. figs. 11, 12, (1846). 

CHENU, Bibl. Conch. 3, 50, pi. xiii. fig. 2. 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. cxci. fig. 7, abs. desc. 

PFEIFFER, Symb. Hist. Hel. ii. 27; Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 217; iii. 270. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 681, (1852). 

DESHAYES, in Fer. i. 329, pi. 1. c. 
Helix Tennesseensis TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1837, ii. 124. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. i. 149; iii. 120, (verba Leana). 
LEA, Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. ix. p. 1. 

In the Boston Journal, this species is said to be also 
Mesodon helicinum Rafinesque. I can find no description 
of any such species. 

The species occurs fossil in the Postpleiocene. 

Mr. Robert Kennicott collected, in Wisconsin, two 
specimens of a curious variety of this species, furnished 
with a broad, revolving, brownish band on the body 
whorl. 

I give below Lea's description of H. Tennesseensis. 
There can be no doubt of its being the young of this 
species. The authors referred to in the synonymy have 
merely repeated this description, without having seen the 
shell. 



HELIX. 53 

Testa supra plano-convexa, subtus convexa, lutea, oblique striata, um- 
bilicata ; spira brevi ; suturis subimpressis ; anfr. 5, subeonvexis ; aper- 
tura limata ; labro intus incrassato. Diam. .45. Length .32 inch. 

' o 

HELIX CLARKII LEA. 
PLATE LXXVII. FIGURE 10. 

T. superne rotundata, inferne plano-convexa, regulariter striata brun- 
neo-cornea, imperforata, unidentata : anfr. 7, oblique striatis ; apertura 
lunata, subdilata ; labro albido, reflexo, inferne calloso ; columella in 
medio unidentata, ad basim impressa. (Lea). 

SYNONYMS AND REFEEENCES. 

Hdix Clarkii LEA, P;oc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. x. p. 41, March, (1858). 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell im perforate, globosely-rounded, regularly and 
finely striated, reddish horn color ; spire obtusely conic ; 
whorls 7, convex, with delicate incremental striae, the last 
one very globose and rounded below ; aperture lunate ; 
peristome white, thickened, reflected, its basal termination 
quite heavy and covering the umbilicus entirely ; one 
elongated, white denticle on the parietal wall of the 
aperture. 

Greater diameter 14 ; lesser 13 ; height 9 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Cherokee County, N. C. 

Remarks. This is a distinct species. At first sight it 
seems a miniature elevata, but is at once distinguished 
by its peculiar globular shape. 

The figure referred to is twice the natural size of the 
shell. 

HELIX THYROIDES SAY vol. ii. p. 129, pi. xi. 

Helix thyroidus SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 33, pi. xiii. 

CHENU, Bibl. Conch. 3, 24, pi. iii. fig. 3. 

DEKAY, 1. c. p. 29, pi. ii. fig. 8. 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 291, f. 6. (Ex. Bost. Journ. absq. 

desc. ) 
DESHAYES in Lam. 3d ed. 3, 309; in Fer. i. 209. 



54 HELICEA. 

Helix thyroides CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 331, pi. Iviii. figs. 8, 9, (1850). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 262. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 677. 
Anchistoma thyroides ADAMS, Gen. pi. Ixxviii. fig. 3. 

I have followed Pfeiffer in the orthography of this spe- 
cies. Say's manuscript, also, shows the name proposed 
by him to have been thyroides. 

I have specimens from nineteen States, showing some 
curious and apparently constant geographical varieties. 
One from Germantown, Pa., is very small, measuring 
only 15 millimetres in diameter. It is globose, shining, 
sometimes imperforate and generally without the parietal 
tooth. It is impossible to distinguish it from forms of 
H. bucculenta. Another peculiar form with an elevated, 
pointed spire and more triangular aperture inhabits St. 
Simon's Isle, Georgia, (Postell). The species is found in 
Louisiana and Texas, (Dr. Moore). It also occurs fossil 
in the Postpleiocene. 

I am unable to find any description of Mesodon leuco- 
don Rafinesque, quoted in the Boston Journal as a syno- 
nym. It is probable the name was sent to Ferussac by 
that author. 

It is also mentioned by Petiver, No. 4, (1. c.) 

HELIX BUCCULENTA GOULD, vol. iii. p. 9, pi. xi a. 

Helix bucculenta PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 271. 
Helix thyroides $ PFEIFFER, 1. c. i. 345. 

HELIX EXOLETA BINNEY, vol. ii. p. 131, pi. x. 

Helix exoleta DE!YAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 27, pi. ii. fig. 6. 
Helix albolobris 6 PFEIFFER. Symb. ii. p. 22, absq. desc. 

D. CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 81, pi. x. figs. 19, 20. 
Helix zaleta MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. cxci. fig. 9. 

PFEIFEER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 316; ii. 270. 

DESHAYES, in Fer. i. 139. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 622, (1852). 

Reeve (1. c.) considers the specific distinction of exoleta 



HELIX. 55 

as doubtful. Deshayes says that its anatomical details 
will decide the question. The dissections of Dr. Leidy 
have already done so. 

The species occurs in Georgia. 

HELIX DENTIFERA BINNEY vol. ii. p. 134, pi. xii. 

Helix dentifera DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 34, pi. ii. fig. 17. 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. of Moll. An. pi. cxci. fig. 11. 
nee PFEIFFER, vol. iii. 
nee CHEMNITZ. 

This is not the dentifera described by Pfeiffer in the 
third volume of his Monograph, and the second edition of 
Chemnitz. The species there described and figured is 
H. Roemeri, confounded by Pfeiffer with dentifera. Its 
distinguishing features are pointed out in the succeeding 
article. A copy of Binney's descriptions is given in Mon. 
Hel. Viv. i. 

It is a mountain shell, has been found by Mr. Edwards 
in Virginia, Dr. S. E. Shurtleff in Western Pennsylvania, 
Mr. Conrad at Broad Top Mountain, and Mr. Phillips on 
the Lehigh. Also in Maine, (E. S. Morse). 

HELIX ROEMERI PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXVII. FIGURES. 

T. anguste umbilicata, depressa, tenui, confertim striatula, diaphana, 
vix nitidula, sordide carnea, spira vix elevata ; sutura leviter impressa ; 
anfr. 5 convexiusculis, ultimo peripheria subangulato ; apertura obliqua, 
lunar! ; peristomate valide albolabiato, margine supero recto, basal! 
reflexo, ad columellam in laminam tenuissimam, umbilicutn semi-occul- 
tantem dilitato. (Pfeiffer). 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix Roemeri PFEIFFER, in Roemer's Texas, p. 455; Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1848, p. 

117. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 680. 
Helix dentifera PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 269, (excl. Binney et DeKay). 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 331, pi. cxxxi. figs. 1-3. (Excl. do.) nee 
BINNEY. 



56 HELICEA. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell with a narrow, or partially covered umbilicus, 
depressed, rather thin, closely striated, rather transparent 
and smooth, horn-colored ; spire slightly elevated ; suture 
lightly impressed ; whorls 5, rather convex, increasing 
slowly, the last one subcarinate at its periphery, scarcely 
descending ; aperture lunar, oblique, generally slightly 
contracted by a parietal denticle which obliquely enters 
the mouth of the shell ; peristome white, thickened, the 
upper portion hardly expanded, reflected below, and at 
the columellar junction spreading into a thin, partial cov- 
ering to the umbilicus. 

Greater diameter 21, lesser 18, height 10 mill. 

Geographical Distribution. New Brauenfels, Texas, 
(Pfeiffer), Washington Co. (Moore). 

Remarks. This species is confounded by Pfeiffer with 
H. dentifera, an authentic specimen of which he has not 
seen. It is quite a distinct species and inhabits a distinct 
geographical region. It may be distinguished from den- 
tifera most readily by attention to the following particu- 
lars. Its umbilicus is generally but partially covered, 
while dentifera is always imperforate, its color is lighter, 
its surface smoother, and above all, its lip is not so broadly 
reflected ; it is also distinctly subcarinate at the periphery. 

The shell is described as " tenuis," and so appears in the 
figure in Chemnitz. I have specimens quite solid. This 
figure is erroneously referred to dentifera^ under which 
name Pfeiffer in the third volume of his Monograph and 
in Chemnitz describes Roemeri. 

HELIX PAL.LIATA SAY vol. ii. p. 136, pi. 

Hdix palliata SAY, (Binney's ed.j p. 16. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. 33, pi. iii. fig. 36, (Excl. a. b.) 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 359, pi. Ixii. figs. 15, 16, (1849). 
PFEIFFEK, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 316; iii. 267. 



HELIX. 57 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 193, fig. 8. Ex. Boston Journal, 

(absq. desc.) 

DESK AYES, in Fer. i. 144, (excl. var.) 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 678. 
Helix denotata DESHAYES, 1. c. 3d ed. iii. 309. 

The extreme variation of this species has given rise to 
considerable confusion. I propose to designate as a 
prominent variety HELIX CAROLiiYENSis LEA, which is 
considered as a variety only by Ferussac, DeKay, Bin- 
ney, Chemnitz, Pfeiffer, Deshayes, and Reeve. The first 
mentioned of these authors says, " This is H. palliata 
Say, and my " denotata," (Bull, Zool. 1835, 2, p. 100). 
Say is, I think, wrong in referring Lea's figure and de- 
scription to Helix appressa var. a, (vid. Binney's ed. 36). 

Triodopsis scabra Rafinesque is quoted by Binney 
(Boston Journal) and others as a synonym of this species. 
I know of no description of such a species. The generic 
definition of Triodopsis (vol. i. 49) will not apply to pal- 
liata. 

I have found it in Vermont at Copperas Hill. 

The succeeding article will contain my views of Helix 
obstricta, and Caracolla helicoides, which I have not 
retained in the synonymy of palliata. 

HELIX OBSTRICTA SAY. 
PLATE XV. 

Shell depressed, with elevated lines forming grooves between 
them ; epidermis pale brownish, naked ; volutions five, depressed 
above, beneath rounded, with an acute, projecting carina ; umbili- 
cus covered with a white callus, indented ; mouth resembling that 
of Jf. palliata. 

Inhabits Ohio. Breadth nearly one inch. 

This species is very closely allied to Helix palliata, but the epi- 
dermis is not covered with small elevations as in that shell, and the 
carina is very prominent and remarkable. 

8 



58 HELICEA. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix odstricta SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 17. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 317; ill. 267. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 683, (1852). 
Helix palliata var. a SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 16. 

Var. a b DF.KAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 33, pi. ii. fig. 16. 

Var. BINNEY, 1. c. 

Helix appressa var. DESHAYES in Fer. (in tab. non in lextu.) 
Hdicodonta denotata var. FERUSSAC, Tab. Syst. 38; Hist. pi. L. A. fig. 7, absq. desc. 
Caracolla helicoides LEA, 1. c. 

Remarks. This species is considered by Say, Binney, 
and DeKay as a variety of the preceeding. It appears 
to me, however, sufficiently constant in its characteristics 
to be considered distinct. 

I have added to the synonymy of this species H. pal- 
liata var. a Say. His description seems to agree with 
that of obstricta given above. 

Var. a. A very prominent acute carina; destitute of minute 
prominences. Inhabits Ohio. Breadth nearly one inch. 

Ferussac figured this species, 1. c., without describing it. 
In Deshayes's continuation of the Histoire no mention is 
made of it, the figure being erroneously referred to H. ap- 
presa var. in the explanation of the plates. 

As regards Caracolla helicoides, I think there can be no 
doubt of its identity with obstricta. Specimens received 
from Mr. Lea under this name are, however, furnished 
with the " minute protuberances r which Say describes 
as not present on obstricta. I believe they are not con- 
stant. Ferussac says that Caracolla helicoides is the same 
as the carinated variety of palliata (Bull. Zool., 1835, 2, 
p. 100). His figure is certainly the same as that of Lea 
and Reeve. Say declares Caracolla helicoides to be the 
same as his palliata var. a (Binney's ed. p. 36). 

Anthony (Ohio Cat.) places obstricta, Carolinensis and 
helicoides in the synonymy of palliata. Pfeiffer considers 
helicoides a synonym of obstricta. In the Boston Journal, 



HELIX. 59 

Binney erroneously quotes Say as describing obstricta with 
only one tooth on the outer lip. 

The species is found fossil in the Postpleiocene at 
Natchez, and recent in Ohio and Tennessee. 

HELIX APPRESSA SAY vol. ii. p. 140, pi. xiii. 

Helix appressa SAY (Binney's ed.) 15. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 267. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 689, (1852). 
DESHAYES in Fer. 1. c. i. 141. 

Helix linguifera DESHAYES, in Lara. 2d ed. viii. 70; 3d ed. iii. 293. 
PFEIFFER, Symb. ad Hist. Hel. p. 19, (absq. desc.) 
CHENU, 111. Conch, pi. xii. fig. 5. 
DELESSERT, Recueil, pi. xxvi. fig. 5. 

I have received from Illinois large quantities of Say's 
var. a. of this species, collected by Mr. R. Kennicott. It is 
thus described by Say: " Labrum with two projecting 
angles." 

HELIX INFLECT A SAY vol. ii. p. 143, pi. xlv. fig. 3. 

Helix inflecta SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 16. 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 45. 
Mrs. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 193, fig. 7. (Ex. Bost. Jour. absq. 

descr.) 

Helix clausa DESHAYES in Lam. 3d ed. 3, 309; in Fer. Hist. 1. c. i. 143. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 704, (1852). 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 269. 
Xolotrema clausa RAFINESQUE, Enumeration, &c. p. 3, (1831). 

The young of this may, perhaps, be H. porcina Say 
(vid. H. hirsuta). 

Pfeiffer mentions a Texan variety, smaller, " umbilico 
non omnino clause." 

It is a typographical error on p. 33, vol. iii. to call this 
H. triodonta Jahn. 

Rafinesque thus describes Xolotrema clausa, " Subde- 
pressed, 5 spires a little striated, opening almost hidden." 

* It is frequently argued that the descriptions of this author are indefinite. To 
do justice to him one should pay attention to his remark, that if one does not 
admit his generic distinctions " it would be requisite to repeat, in the descriptions 
of their specific characters, that of the characters of my new genera, which would 
render the definition of the species prolix." Tr. of Mon. p. ii. 



60 HELICES. 

I have specimens of this species from the following 
additional States, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Louisiana. 

HELIX RUGELI SHUTTLEWORTH vol. iii. p. 18, pi. Ixxviii. fig. 15. 

Helix Rugeli SHUTTLE-WORTH, Bern. Mittheil. 1852, p. 198. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 268. 

I am indebted to Bishop Elliott for specimens of this 
shell. It is in most respects similar to the preceding 
species, and would be mistaken for it unless the aperture 
be examined. The position of the upper tooth of the 
peristome far within the aperture at once distinguishes it. 
The size is not, however, any criterion, as I have individ- 
uals of Rugeli only 10 millimetres in diameter, while 
some of my specimens of inflecta are full 13 millimetres. 

The plate shows an enlarged view of the aperture. 

HELIX M ONODO1V RACKETT vol. ii. p. 147, pi. xli. 

Helix monodon DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 35, pars., excl. syn., pi. iii. fig. 19 not 
fig. 21, a. b. 

Mrs. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 193, fig. 11. (Ex. Bost. Journ. 
abs. desc.) 

BILLINGS, Canadian Nat. ii. 100, fig. 6. 
Helix convexa CHEMNITZ, pars. (excl. syn. et tab. Ixvi. figs. 24, 27). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 268, (excl. (3 et y). 

DESHAYES, Lam. 3d ed. iii. 308 ; in Fer. 1. c. i. 144. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 696 (1852), excl. syn.; No. 717, (1854). 
Helicodonta hirsuta a. FERUSSAC, Tabl. Syst. 101. 

VAR. FRATERNA SAY. 

Helix fraterna SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 30, pi. Ixxiv. fig. 3. 

Mrs. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 193, fig. 5 absq. desc. (Ex. Bost. 

Journ.) 
Helix monodon DEKAY, 1. c. ex parte, pi. iii. fig. 21, a, b. 

WOOD, Ind. Suppl. vii. 15. 
Helix convexa CHEMNITZ, ed. 2. i. 86, ex parte. 
Var. REEVE, Con. Icon. 1. c. 
(3 PFEIFFER, 1. c. 

VAR. LEAH WARD. 

Helix convexa y PFEIFFER, 1. c. 

Var. CHEMNITZ, 1. c. pi. Ixvi. figs. 24, 25. 



HELIX. 61 

I have separated the synonymy of these varieties in 
such a way as to show the opinion of various authors on 
them. For my own part, I cannot consider them as dis- 
tinct species. Mighels (Shells of Maine) considers/rater- 
na and monddon distinct. 

It has also been noticed in Washington Co. Texas, 
(Moore). 

HELIX STEXOTREMA FERUSSAC vol. ii. p. 151, pi. xlii. fig. 5. 

Helix Stenotrema PFEIFFER, Symb. ii. 39, (excl. ? pustula.) 

REEVE, No. 720, (1852). 
Helix hirsuta {3 PFEIFFER, MOD. Hel. Viv. i. 421. 

Var. Stenotrema, CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 376 (1846), pi. Ixv. figs. 

12-14, (1849). 
Helicodonta hirsuta a FERUSSAC, 1. c. pi. L. A. fig. 3. 

I have thought it best to separate this from the succeed- 
ing species, its characteristics being constant in Postplei- 
ocene fossils as well as in recent individuals from Indiana, 
Kentucky, Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana. 

Ferussac considers this as var. a of hirsuta and gives 
Stenotrema convexa Rafinesque as a synonym. His figure 
is unmistakable. It appears, therefore, that Stenotrema 
convexa Rafinesque is not hirsuta but the heavy form. 
Its description in addition to that of the genus given in 
vol. i. is as follows : " Nearly round, both sides convex, 
smooth, 5 spires." I cannot, therefore, see any reason for 
considering Rafinesque's species to be monodon, as so 
many writers have done. In the continuation of the 
Histoire, Deshayes considers Stenotrema as a variety only. 
He has caused confusion by quoting Stenotrema convexa 
Rafinesque as a synonym of hirsuta, and yet saying that 
the same author has given the name of convexa to the 
shell figured on pi. L. A. fig. 2, which is monodon. 

Pfeiffer also, in vol. i., gives Stenotrema convexa Raf. as 
a synonym of monodon, on the authority of Ferussac, 
though a reference to his figure would at once show that 
he applied the name to the heavy form of hirsuta. 



62 HELICEA. 

Gould quotes Stenotrema convexa as a synonym of hir- 
suta (Invert. 1. c.) 

HELIX HIRSUTA SAY vol. ii. p. 150, pi. xlii. fig. 3. 

Helix hirsuta SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 8. 

DE KAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 36, pi. iii. fig. 27. 

DESHAYES, in Lam. ed. 3, vol. 3, p. 308; in Fer. i. p. 140. 

Mrs. GRAY, Fig. of Moll. An. pi. 193, fig. 8, ex Bost. Journ. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, Excl. var., i. 374 (1846), pi. Ixv. fig. 9-11, (1849). 

PFEIFFEK, Mon. Hel. Viv. Excl. var. /?, i. 421; iii. 126. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 714, (1852). 
Hdix sinuata y GMELIN (teste Pfeiffer). 
Helix isognomostomos y GMELIN (teste Pfeiffer). 
Tridopsis hirsuta WOODWARD, Man. pi. xii. fig. 7, absq. desc. 
Slenostoma convexa RAFINESQUE, Enum. and Ace. p. 3, 1831, nee. Ferussac. 

Junior ? 

Helix porcina SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 30, pi. Ixxiv. fig. 2. 
DE&AY, N. Y. Moll. p. 45. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 97. 

BLAND, N. Y. Lyceum, vi. p. 344, Notes, i. 34, with fig. 

In the remarks on the preceding species will be found 
some notes referring equally to this. 

The species is found fossil in the Postpleiocene, and 
recent in the localities already mentioned, as well as in 
Kansas (Hayden), Virginia, at the height of 2000 above 
the sea (Edwards), and the District of Columbia (Stimp- 
son). 

The generic description of Stenostoma or Stenotrema is 
given in vol. i. p. 49. The only specific description is the 
following : " Nearly round, both sides convex, smooth, 
5 spires, Kentucky." It appears to me to apply more to 
this species than to monodon. 

As regards H. porcina, Say's description is copied by 
the authors referred to, neither having seen authentic 
specimens. Bland refers it rather to inflecta than hirsuta, 
if a young shell, but anticipates its proving mature. 
From the figure of Say, I do not doubt the correctness of 
my father's view of this question. Other cases occur 
among Say's writings of still graver errors than describ- 



HELIX. 63 

ing a young shell as mature ; compare, for instance, his 
description of the young of a common Planorbis as Bulla 
fluviatilis (Binney's ed. p. 71). 

Say's description is as follows : 

Shell depressed, yellowish brown ; epidermis rugose, with mi- 
nute, very numerous bristles ; whorls rather more than four, de- 
pressed above, beneath rounded, forming a very obtuse angle rather 
above the centre of the whorl ; umbilicus open, rather small, pro- 
found ; labrum simple. 

Breadth rather more than three tenths of an inch. Inhabits 
the North-West Territory. 

HELIX BARBIGERA REDFIELD vol. iii. p. 21, pi. Ixxvii. fig. 2. 

Helix barbigera REDFIELD, N. Y. Lyceum, vi. 171, pi. ix. figs. 4, 5, 7. 

The figures referred to are fac-similes of those of Red- 
field, showing the outline of the shell, as well as a magni- 
fied view of a portion of the epidermis. 

HELIX EDVARDSI BLAND. 
PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURES 7, 9. 

T. imperforata, lenticulari, carinata, tenuiuscula, fulva; epidermide 
castanea, supra in striis pilosis prostratis minutis elevata, infra tuber- 
culis acutis minutis creberrime munita, qua juxta aperturam setos erectos 
gerunt; spira convexo-conoidea ; anfr. 5, complanatis, lente accrescenti- 
bus ; ultimo antice gibbo, subito subdeflexo ; apice minute granulate ; 
basi convexo, parum indentata, lineis numerosis spiralibus sub epider- 
mide impressis ; sutura profunde impressa ; apertura obliqua, transversa, 
auriformi; dente angusta, subarcuata, lamelliformi, prselonga, parietis 
aperturalis coarctata ; perist. margine supero acuto, parum reflexo, infero 
subarcuato, depresso, subreflexo, et ad anfractum ultimum subappresso, 
callo dentiformi intus instructo, obsolete inciso. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix Edvardsi BLAND, N. Y. Lyceum, vi. p. 277; Notes, p. i. pi. ix. fig. 14-16. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Shell imperforate, lenticular, carinate, the carina obsolete near 
the aperture, rather thin, beneath the epidermis pale brown ; the 



64 HELICEA. 

epidermis dark chestnut-color, with numerous minute curved hair- 
like processes lying flat upon, and attached to the epidermidal sur- 
face of the upper whorls in the direction of the incremental striae, 
the epidermis at the base covered with acute, raised, transverse 
tubercles, most numerous, and having erect bristles near the aper- 
ture ; spire convex-conoid ; whorls five, flattened, gradually increas- 
ing, the last gibbous above, suddenly but slightly deflected ; apex 
minutely granulate ; base convex, little indented in the umbilical 
region, and with impressed spiral lines beneath the epidermis ; 
suture deeply impressed ; aperture oblique, transverse, auriform, 
narrowed by a slender slightly arcuate lamelliform parietal tooth 
extending across from the umbilical axis, and terminating with a 
short angular deflection within the aperture ; upper margin of the 
peristome acute, scarcely reflected, lower margin slightly arcuate, 
depressed, slightly reflected, and partially appressed to the body 
whorl, with a tooth-like callus within, having an almost obsolete 
notch in the centre. 

Diam. maj. 9, rnin. 8, alt. 5 mill. 

Geographical Distribution. Mountains in Fayette, or Green 
Briar Co., Virginia. (W. H. Edwards ?) 

Remarks. This species is allied to or rather intermediate be- 
tween H. barbigera Redf. (Plate IX. figs. 4-7), and H. hirsuta Say 
the former connecting H. spinosa Lea with H.fraterna Say. It 
is smaller, more elevated, less acutely carinated, and readily dis- 
tinguished from H. barbigera by the partially appressed, notched 
peristome, and the different character of the epidermis. In H. bar- 
bigera the attached hair-like epidermidal processes are produced, at 
the sutures and carina, into cilia, which are entirely wanting in this 
species. The same processes, though less numerous, and some- 
times almost obsolete, are observable at the base of the former, 
while in the latter, the basal epidermis approaches in character to 
that of //. palliata Say. The deep characteristic notch in H. hir- 
suta is considerably less developed in H. Edvardsi, and the callus 
which connects the parietal tooth with the upper margin of the 
peristome in the former, does not exist in the latter. In the gen- 
eral character of the peristome the species under consideration re- 
sembles H. hirsuta, while H. barbigera is in that particular more 
appropriately compared with H.fraterna Say. 



HELIX. 65 

While naming this species after my friend Mr. Edwards, who 
collected it, I am quite aware of the objections to such specific 
names, but in the Genus Helix it seems almost a hopeless case to 
find, for a shell closely allied to several others, an unpreoccupied 
name derived from any distinct specific character. 

This is Eland's description. I have also given fac-sim- 
iles of his figures. 

HELIX SPINOSA LEA vol. ii. p. 154, pi. xliv. fig. 1. 

Helix spinosa DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 47. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 126. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 375, pi. Ixv. figs. 15-17, (1849). 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 685, (1852). 

HELIX EDGARIANA LEA vol. ii. p. 155, pi. xliv. fig. 2. 

Caracolla Edgariana TROSCHEL, Arch. f. Nat. 1843, 2, p. 124. 
Helix Edgariana PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 425 ; iii. 126. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 703. 

I have specimens of this species from Tennessee (El- 
liott), Waschita Springs, Arkansas (Binney coll.), and Ala- 
bama, (ditto). 

HELIX MAXILLATA GOULD vol. ii. p. 157, pi. xl. a, fig. 2. 

Helix maxillata PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 126. 

The impressions of this plate are printed from two sep- 
arate copper plates. On one of them, the enlarged view 
of the aperture of this species is misplaced. 

It has also been detected by Dr. H. M. Neisler along 
the Cattahoochee River in Georgia. 

HELIX CONCAVA SAY vol. ii. p. 163, pi. xxi. 

Helix concava SAY, ( Binney 's ed.) p. 20. 

Helix planorboides PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 156. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 164, pi. xcv. fig. 17-19; cliv. fig. 45, 

(1851) 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 674, (1852). 
DESHAYES, in Fer. 1. c. i. p. 87. 
Helix dissidens DESHAYES, 1. c. i. 97, pi. 84, figs. 1, 2. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 84. 

9 



66 HELICEA. 

The variety referred to as larger and from beyond the 
Rocky Mts. by Adams (1. c.), is H. Vancouver ensis Lea. 

I can find no description by Rafinesque of this species, 
though he is quoted by Binney in the Boston Journal, 
probably on the authority of Ferussac. 

Pfeiffer (Mai. Blatt. ii. p. 11) points out the error made 
on p. 164 in referring to this species the figure in the Bos- 
ton Journal. 

It has also been found in Maine (Morse), as well as 
various other new localities, and occurs fossil in the Post- 
pleiocene. 

Helix dissidens appears to me identical with this spe- 
cies. I have given a fac-simile of the figure of Deshayes 
(pi. Ixxvii. fig. 5), and also subjoin his remarks, as well as 
description. Pfeiffer repeats the last, not having seen the 
shell, and notes the resemblance to H. Vancouver ensis (vel- 
Licata). 

HELIX DISSIDENS. Testa orbiculato-depressa, superne convexa sub- 
tus late et prof'unde umbilicata ; anfr. convexiusculis, ultimo cylindraceo ; 
apertura rotundato-lunari, obliqua ; labro simplici, superne inflexo ; testa 
concolore, albo-viridula. 

Diam. 17, alt. 7. Habite 1'Amerique Septentrionale. 

Nous soup^onnons que cette espece a etc confondue par les con- 
ch'yliogiques Americains avec notre H. cellaria d'Europe. Quoique 
tres voisines, ces especes se distinguent cependant pas des caracteres 
constants. Celled est orbiculaire, tres aplatie, a spire convexe, tres 
obtuse, composee de 5^ tours convexes, reunis par une suture de- 
primee. Le dernier tour est cylindrace, un peu plus large en des- 
sous qu'en dessus ; il est perce au centre d'un tres grand ombilic, 
dont le diametre est egal a celui du dernier tour. L'ouverture est 
obronde, semilunaire ; elle est legerement deprimee du haut en bas ; 
son diametre transversal se trouve ainsi un peu plus long que le 
diametre longitudinal. Les bords de cette ouverture restent sim- 
ples ; ils sont plus obtus et plus epais que dans H. cellaria, et dans 
le plupart des autres especes du groupe. Quoique polie et brillante, 
cette coquille n'est par cependant tout a fait lisse : on remarque, 



HELIX. Oi 

en effet, sur sa surface des stries irregulieres d'accroissement, qui 
grossissent en s'approchant de 1'ombilic, se regulaissent dans cette 
cavite, et deviennent assez semblables a celle qu'on reraarque dans 
quelques solarium. Cette coquille est mince, diaphane, et d'une cou- 
leur uniforme, d'un jaune verdatre tres pale. Les stries qui s'en- 
forcent dans 1'interieur de I'ombilic n'ont pas ete representees assez 
grosses dans les figures de cette ouvrage, auxquelles nous ren- 
voyons. 

HELIX JEJUNA SAY vol. ii. p. 172, pi. xlii. fig. 2. 

Helix jejuna SAY, Journ. Acad. ii. 158; Binney's ed. p. 9. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 46. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 147; iii. 124. 

BLAND, N. Y. Lyceum, vi. p. 341; Notes 31. 
Helix Mobiliana TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1843, ii. 124. 
PFEIFFER. 1. c. iii. 219. 

This species is not referred to under this name in the 
second volume of the Mollusks. Of all the authors referred 
to in the synonymy, none have seen authentic specimens 
of it. It has been known only by Say's description until 
within a few months past, when it was suggested to me 
by Dr. Pfeiffer that it might be identical with Mobiliana. 
Specimens found at the original locality * by Mr. O. S. 
Dorman, agree with Say's description sufficiently to con- 
vince Bland of their identity. Since there is no hope of 
ever deciding the question with certainty, it appears best 
to follow the suggestion of these two authors, as that most 
likely to be correct. 

In notes taken by Dr. Binney at the Jardin des Plantes, 
it appears that a young shell is there labelled H. jejuna. 

Lea refers to this species in his remarks on several 
species. As demonstrated by Bland, he had before him 
clausa under this name. 

Anthony makes Mobiliana a synonym of clausa in his 
Ohio Catalogue. 

* Mr. Dorman writes that the correct orthography of the spot is Cow/brd, and 
not Cowfort. 



68 HELICEA. 

Living specimens sent me by Bishop Elliott present the 
following characteristics : 

Animal dirty white, neck darker, superior tentacles 
black, not quite twice the breadth of the shell, foot 
pointed. 

It has also been found at St. Simon's Isle, Ga. (Postell), 
St. John's River and St. Augustine, Fla., (Dorman), and 
in the cemeteries of Savannah. (Elliott.) 

The following is Say's description : 

H. JEJUNA. Shell subglobular, glabrous, pale reddish brown ; 
volutions five, slightly wrinkled, regularly rounded ; spire convex ; 
suture rather deeply impressed ; aperture dilate lunate ; labrum a 
little incrassated within, not reflected ; umbilicus open, small. 

Breadth rather more than one fifth of an inch. Inhabits the 
Southern States. 

Animal light reddish brown, with a granular surface, longer 
than the breadth of the shell ; oculiferous tentacula elongated, and 
rather darker than the body. 

This shell is very closely allied to H. sericea of Southern Europe, 
but it differs from that species in being destitute of the hirsute 
vesture. 1 found several specimens of jejuna, during an excursion 
some time since into East Florida, at the Cow Fort on St. John's 
River. It is in the collection of the Academy. 

HELIX INCRUSTATA POEY vol. ii. p. 174, pi. xxix. a, fig. 4. 

Helix incrustata POEY, Memorias, vol. i. pp. 208, 212, pi. xii. figs. 11-16. 
PFEIFFEK, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 632. 

This shell is described by Gould under the name of 
saxicola. It is, however, quite a distinct species. The 
true saxicola is more nearly allied to chersina, and its 
surface is bright and clean, the spire elevated, the general 
outline more globose, and the umbilicus small, being also 
slightly covered by the lip. 

I am indebted to Mr. Poey for specimens of the true 
snxicola of Cuba, as well as of his incrustata. A compari- 



HELIX. 69 

son of the latter with the shell described by Gould, leaves 
no room for doubting their identity. Poey's description is 
as follows : 

Testa depressa, tenuis, corneo-fusca, perspective perforata, subtiliter 
striata ; anfr. 4, ultimo convexo, prioribus planulatis ; apertura subcir- 
cularis, marginibus aeutis approximatis. 

HELIX PULCHELLA MULLER vol. ii. p. 175, pi. xvii. fig. 1. 

Helix minuta SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 30. 

STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. p. 54, ab?q. descr. 

I have in my possession notes of Say never published, 
in which he acknowledges the identity of these two spe- 
cies. DeKay considers them distinct, but erroneously says 
the European pulchella is furnished with sharp parallel 
ribs, (referring to the variety). Stimpson also considers 
them distinct. 

Ferussac, Pfeifter, Deshayes, and Reeve unite them. 

I am constantly receiving this species from every section 
of the country, having specimens from the following 
new localities : Pennsylvania, District of Columbia, Mich- 
igan (Winchell), Kansas and Nebraska (Hayden), and 
Florida. It is brought down in immense quantities by 
the streams of Nebraska and Kansas, and deposited with 
drift-wood, other minute shells, &c., on their banks. Dr. 
Hayden collected myriads of them during his expedition 
to the Yellow-stone River. He was also so fortunate 
as to find about a pint of the heavily ribbed variety 
(H. COST ATA), which had before been noticed only at 
Cincinnati and Philadelphia, and that very sparingly. 
The discovery of this ribbed variety was a most interest- 
ing one, as it gives additional evidence of the identity 
of the American with the European pulchella, and is 
strongly opposed to the theory of the introduction of the 
species from abroad. 



70 HELICEA. 

HELIX PROFUNDA SAY vol. ii. p. 177, pi. xxii. 

Helix prof undo, SAY, (Binney's ed.) pp. 20, 36, pi. 37, fig. 3. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 42, pi. iii. fig. 38. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. p. 63. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 265. 

CHENU, Bibl. Conch, iii. 51, pi. xiii. fig. 26. 

DKSHAYES in Fer. i. 69. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 682, (1852). 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. cxciii. fig. 12. (Ex. Bost. Journ.) 
Helix Ricliardi DESHAYES in Lam. 3d ed. iii. 283. 

CHENU, 111. Con. xii. 13. 

DELESSERT, Rec. des Coq. pi. xxvi. fig. 7. 
Polygyra profundum ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll. ii. 207, (absq. desc.)? 

The shell figured in Ferussac, pi. 69 G, figs. 9, 11, and 
referred to as var. /? by Pfeiffer, is merely one of the many 
varieties of the species. 

I have a specimen collected by Mr. T. A. Conrad on 
Broad Top Mountain, Pennsylvania. It occurs fossil in 
the Postpleiocene. 

HELIX SAYII BIKNEY vol. ii. p. 180, pi. xxiii. 

Helix Sayii, CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, No. 976, tab. cxlviii. figs. 13, 14. 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 193, fig. 10. (Ex. Bost. Journ.) 

DESHAYES in Fer. i. p. 79. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 679, (1852). 

Helix diodonta SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 39, pi. Ixxiv. fig. 4. 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 34, pi. ii. fig. 18. 

Thave it also from Pennsylvania. 

HELIX TRIDENT AT A SAY vol. ii. p. 183, pi. xxvii, 

Helix tridentata SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 6, pi. Ixx. fig. 1. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 28. pi. ii. fig. 7. 

POTIEZ et MIOHAUU, Gal. p. 114. 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 291, fig. 3. (Ex. Bost. Journ.) 

CHEMNITZ, 1. c. i. 84. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 263. 

DESHAYES in Lam. ed. 3, iii. 309, in Fer. 1. c. i. 72. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 690, (1852). 
Tnodopsis lunula RAFINESQUE, En. and Ace. p. 3. 

I propose to separate from tridentata Binney both fallax 
and Hopetonensis. Their distinctive characters are suf- 



HELIX. < 1 

ficiently strong and constant to warrant the separation, 
though many intermediate forms occur, scarcely referable 
to one more than to another. The present form occurs 
less plentifully in the Southern States, its place being 
filled by the two others. 

Petiver's No. 6, is this species. Triodopsis lunula is 
also one of its synonyms. The generic description is 
given (vol. i. p. 49), the specific description is as fol- 
lows : 

Depressed, mouth narrow with thick lips, umbilicus lunulated. 
In Kentucky. Forms subgenus Menomphis. 

In Ravenel's Catalogue, p. 9, (1834), a variety of H. 
tridentata is mentioned under the name of ephebus. I 
find among Say's manuscript the following description 
of it : 

H. TRIDENTATA S. var. ephebus. Small ; labrum much more 
obtusely rounded ; the elevated lines of the whorls more prominent 
and obvious. Breadth two fifths of an inch. 

HELIX FALLAX SAY vol. ii. p. 183, pi. xxviii. 

Helix fallax SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 27. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 28, pi. iii. fig. 23. 

CHEMNITZ, 1. c. i. 364, (1846). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 263. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 686, (1852). 
Helix tridentata BINNEY, Bost. Journ. 1. c. pi. xviii. fig. 3. 

This is certainly more than a variety of tridentata Say. 
Not only are the characteristic differences well marked, 
but the habits of the respective animals are different. Mr. 
J. G. Anthony tells me that tridentata is found on hill- 
sides in the grass, while fallax inhabits rich soils, in 
woods, under logs, and is not gregarious like the former. 
The difficulty is to mark the dividing line between the 
many varieties of fallax, some of which are quite as dis- 
tinct as H. Hopetonensis Shuttl. 



< 3 HELICEA. 

The shell mentioned on page 10 of my Notes as being 
furnished with an internal fulcrum, seems to be a distinct 
species. 

I have specimens of fallax from the Northern, Western, 
and Southwestern States. It is also found in many of the 
Southern States, and is quoted from Texas by Roemer. 
Say's description is as follows : 

HELIX FALLAX. Spire convex ; volutions five, with elevated 
lines forming grooves between them ; labrum reflected, contracting 
the aperture, bidentate ; teeth separated by a profound sinus ; 
superior tooth inflected into the mouth ; inferior tooth situated 
near the base ; labrum with a large, prominent, oblique, lamelliform 
tooth, curving downwards so as nearly to reach the termination of 
the labrum; umbilicus open, exhibiting the volutions. 

Greatest transverse diameter nine-twentieths of an inch. 

This resembles the tridentata Nob., but the upper tooth of the 
labrum is much inflected, the spire is more elevated, and the size is 
less considerable ; in the former character it coincides with H. 
inflecta Nob., but that shell has the umbilicus closed. 

Presented to the Academy by Messrs. Hyde and Mason, who 
found it in the vicinity of Philadelphia, where it is not uncommon. 

Since the above was written, I received a specimen from Mr. 
Stephen Elliott, of South Carolina, fully equal in size to the 
triclentata. 

HELIX HOPETONENSIS SHUTTLEVVORTH. .vol. iii. p. 17, pi. Ixxvii. fig. 16- 

Helix Hopetonensis SHUTTLEWORTH, Bern. Mitt. 1852, p. 198. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 709, (1852). 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 263. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. ii. p. 420, pi. cxlviii. figs. 17, 18. 

I have it also from Florida, and St. Simon's Isle, Geor- 
gia. (Postell.) 

HELIX VENTROSULA PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXVII. FIGURE 14. 

T. rimato-perforata, depresso-globosa, tenuis, subtiliter striata, pellu- 
cida, corneo-albida ; spira vix elevata; anfr. 5 vix convexiusculi, ultimus 



HELIX. 73 

superne subangulatus, subito deflexus, basi inflatus, antice gibbus et valde 
constrictus ; apertura perobliqua, ringens ; perist. acutum, late reflexum, 
marginibus vix conniventibus, laminas elevatas in ventre anfractus penul- 
timi angulatim junctas, emittentibus, dextro lamina subperpendiculari, 
dilitata, basali dentibus 2 acutis munito. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 



Helix ventrosula PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 131; Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 417; 

iii. 266. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. p. 373, (1846,) pi. Ixv. figs. 5, 6, (1849). 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 687, (1852). 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell minutely perforated, globosely depressed, thin and 
shining, pellucid, delicately striated, horn-colored ; spire 
slightly raised, whorls 5 but little convex, the last one 
subangulated at the periphery, falling suddenly towards 
the aperture, inflated below, and strongly contracted ; 
aperture very oblique, much complicated with teeth ; 
peristome acute, broadly reflected, its terminations scarcely 
approaching each other, but joined by two white, elevated 
laminae, which are placed at acute angles on the parietal 
wall ; the basal termination is also furnished with two 
white acute denticles, while on the other is placed a white 
sub-perpendicular, extended lamina. 

Greater diameter, 13 ; lesser, 11 ; height, 1\ millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Texas and Mexico. 

Remarks. This shell was unknown to Binney, and 
erroneously considered by Gould (p. 193) as a synonym 
of H. Texasiana. It is, however, a remarkably well char- 
acterized species. It may readily be distinguished by the 
globose under-surface, and the basin-shaped aperture, nar- 
rowed to scarcely more than a chink by the prominent, 
white teeth. 

HELIX AURICULATA SAY ................... vol. ii. p. 186, pi. xl. fig. l. 

Polyyyra auriculata SAY, (Binney's ed.) p, 10. 

10 



74 HELICEA. 

Helix auriculata DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 47, pi. iii. fig. 28. 
CHEMNITZ, 1. c. i. 371, (1846). 

DESHAYES in Lam. 3d ed. iii. 308: in Fer. 1. c. i. 76. 
PFEIFFEK, 1. c. iii. 266. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 700, (1852). 

It will appear from the above synonymy that I have 
separated H. avara from this species. Other species may 
also be included in auriculata Binney, but I make no in- 
quiry concerning them, as my friend Mr. Bland will soon 
publish an elaborate article on this group. 

Ferussac's (pi. 50, fig. 3) var. minor is quoted as a variety 
of auriculata by Pfeiffer, in the first volume of his great 
work, but in volume third is doubtfully referred to uvu- 
lifera. 

I have specimens measuring 16 millimetres in diameter. 
They are from St. Augustine, Fla., the only locality, in- 
deed, from which I have received the true auriculata^ the 
smaller variety from the keys being probably H. uvulifera. 

The shell is carried on the animal in a manner quite 
different from that of the other species, the axis being 
quite horizontal. 

HELIX AVARA SAY vol. ii. p. 186, pi. xl. fig. 2. 

Polyyyra avara SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 11. 
Helix avara DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 47. 

CHEMNITZ, 1. c. i. 370, (1846,) pi. Ixv. figs. 1, 2, (1849). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. i. 418; iii. 267. 

REEVE, 1. c. No. 720. 

DESHAYES in Fer. 1. c. i. 78. 
Helix Sayii DEKAY, 1. c. p. 47. 

I have already remarked that the confusion existing con- 
cerning this and the preceding species is about to be recti- 
fied by Mr. Bland. I will, therefore, refrain from making 
any remarks at this time. 

The species as it now stands has been found from 
Georgia to Texas; in some of the intermediate States 
the individuals are extremely numerous. 



HELIX. 75 

Say's description is as follows. 

P. AVARA. Shell covered with numerous short, robust hairs ; 
spire convex ; whorls four, regularly rounded, with hardly elevated 
lines forming grooves, which are much more conspicuous near the 
mouth ; mouth subreniform, two projecting, obtuse teeth on the 
outer lip within, separated by a deep sinus ; outer lip elevated, 
equal, describing two-thirds of a circle ; pillar-lip elevated, broadly 
but not profoundly emarginate, concave beneath, and connected to 
the inner side by an elongated, lamelliform tooth, which is placed 
obliquely on the penultimate whorl, near the middle of the mouth ; 
lips almost equally prominent, continued ; umbilicus moderate, not ex- 
hibiting the volutions, no groove on the penultimate whorl within it. 

Breadth quarter of an inch. Inhabits Florida. Cabinet of the 
Academy. Animal longer than the breadth of the shell, acute 
behind, above granulated and blackish, beneath, and each side, 
white. 

This we found in the orange groves of Mr. Fatio, on the river 
St. John, East Florida ; it is usually covered with a black, earthy 
coat, which is probably retained and collected by the hairs. When 
unencumbered with this vesture, the shell is of a horn-color. It is 
by no means so common as the preceding species. 

HELIX UVULIFERA SHUTTLEWORTH vol. iii. p. 20. 

Helix uvulifera SHUTTLEWORTH, Bern. Mitt. 1852. p. 199. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 420, pi. cxlviii. figs. 19, 20, (1853). 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 267. 

Helix Jlorulifera REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 699, (Aug. 1852). 
Helix auriculata minor FERUSSAC, Hist. pi. 1. fig. 3? (teste Pfeiffer). 

This species is known in many American 
cabinets as a small variety of auriculata. 

I have one specimen from Texas, received 
from Mr. Cuming. 

HELIX VULTUOSA GOULD vol. ii. p. 189, pi. xl. a, fig. 4. 

Helix vulluosa CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 365, pi. cxxvii. figs. 10-12. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 711, (1852). 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 263. 




76 HELICEA. 

HELIX ARIADN^E PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURES 1, 3, 4. 

T. arcuato-rimata, depressa, subdiscoidea, solidula, diaphana, superne 
plicatula, albida ; spira subplana ; anfr. 5 sutura impressa distinct!, 
planiusculi, ultimus antice subito deflexus, valde constrictus, basi paulo 
convexior, sublaevigatus ; rima umbilicalis areuata, in perforationem 
obliquaua, punctiforraem terminata; apertura parvula, perobliqua, lunato- 
circularis, ringens ; perist. breviter reflexum, marginibus conniventibus, 
lingua bicruci, prof'unde intrante, flexuosa junctis, basali plicis 2 validis, 
marginalibus, intrantibus, approximatis, dextro plica profunda margini 
parallela munito. [Pfeiffer.] 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix Ariadnce PFEIFFER in Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1848, p. 120; Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 266. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. p. 372, pi. Ixv. figs. 19-21, (1846). 
Helix Couchiana LEA, Proc. Phila. Acad. 1857, p. 102. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell with a rounded umbilical groove, terminating in a 
minute oblique perforation, depressed, subdiscoidal, nearly 
transparent, bluish white, with scarcely perceptible wrinkles 
on the upper surface ; spire flattened ; whorls five, separ- 
ated by a distinct suture, flattened, the last one suddenly 
falling towards the aperture, very much contracted and 
pinched behind the peristome, more convex and smoother 
below ; there is a deeply chiselled, rounded, umbilical 
groove as mentioned above, the umbilical region is also 
channelled ; aperture small, extremely complicated with 
teeth, very oblique and circular ; peristome white, slightly 
reflected, its terminations approaching each other and 
joined by two flexuose, elevated, acute laminae, con- 
verging to a point far within the aperture ; the basal por- 
tion of the peristome is also furnished with two stout, 
entering, converging, marginal folds, while the right ter- 
mination of the peristome has a more delicate, deeply 
seated, elongated lamina, running almost parallel with the 
peristome. 



HELIX. 77 

Greater diameter, 12 ; lesser, 10 ; height, 5 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Pfeiffer gives Central Ame- 
rica as the habitat in Chemnitz, but in the Monographia he 
gives none. The shell figured (fig. 4) is from Tamaulipas, 
Mexico, where it was collected by Berlandier. I have 
seen no specimens found strictly within the limits of the 
Union, though we have every reason to expect to discover 
them in Texas. 

Remarks. This can be confounded with no known 
American species. It is at once distinguished by the re- 
markable aperture, the flat spire, convex base, and umbil- 
ical channel. It is sufficiently transparent to allow the 
suture to be seen through the base of the shell, when held 
towards the light. 

I have given the outlines of the figures in Chemnitz, as 
well as an enlarged view of the carious aperture. 

The shell referred to doubtfully as a variety of Helix 
Loisa in my Notes p. 5, may be an immature specimen of 
Ariadnce. 

Mr. Lea's original specimen of H. Couchiana was ob- 
tained from the same source as the shell I have figured 
(fig. 4), and resembles it in every particular. I have not, 
therefore, the slightest hesitation in placing it in the 
synonymy of this species. His description is as follows : 

T. superne paulisper elevata, subplanulata, inferne subinflata ; niti- 
cla, abida, longitudinaliter et subtiliter striata, minute perforata ; anfr. 5 ; 
apertura rotundata, quinquedentata ; labro subaeuto. 

Hab. Texas L. Berlandier, M. D. 

HELIX HIPPOCREPIS PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURE 19. 

Testa anguste umbilicata, depressa, solidula, confertim arcuato-plicata, 
opaca, fuscula ; spira vix elevata ; anfr. 5j angusti, vix convexiusculi, 
sutura impressa juncti, ultimus superne carinatus, basi convexior, antice 
solutus, subito deflexus, pone aperturam constrictus et gibboso-inflatus ; 
umbilicus extus latiusculus, angustissime pervius ; apertura subhorizon- 



78 HELICEA. 

talis, auriformis, ringens ; perist. sublabiatum, marginibus callo elevato, 
angular!, superne laminam profunde intrantem alteramque minorem 
prope columellara (ambas profund ferri equino instar connexas) emit- 
tente junctis, supero breviter expanse, laminam obliquam immittente, 
basali calloso-reflexo. [Pfeiffer.] 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix hippocrepis PFEIFFER in Roemer's Texas, p. 455; in Zeitsch. f. Mai. 

1848, p. 119; Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 267. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 333, pi. cxxxi. f. 4-6. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 1238, (1854). 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell perforated, depressed, rather heavy, closely stri- 
ated, opaque, smoky; spire flattened; suture impressed; 
whorls 5|, scarcely convex, the last carinated above, more 
convex below, falling abruptly at the aperture, and behind 
it very much contracted and with a prominent isolated 
bulge ; umbilicus at first expanded and grooved, but rap- 
idly terminating in a minute perforation ; aperture almost 
horizontal, ear-shaped, complicated with teeth ; peristome 
white, thickened, its extremities joined by an elevated, 
sharp, angular ridge, from which protrude far within the 
aperture two laminae, (the upper one sharper and more 
prominent,) the connecting terminations of which within the 
shell resemble a horseshoe ; the upper portion of the per- 
istome is slightly reflected and furnished with an oblique 
entering angle, and the basal portion is callous and reflected. 

Greater diameter, 12 ; lesser, 10 ; height, 5 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. New Brauenfels, Texas. 
(Roe'mer.) 

Remarks. The smaller, columellar lamina, from which 
the name of the shell is derived, is not represented in the 
plate. 

This species is remarkably well characterized and can- 
not be compared or confounded with any other known 
American shell. It is very rare in cabinets. 



HELIX. 79 

HELIX TEXASIANA MORICASD vol. ii. p. 191, pi. xlv. fig. 1. 

Helix Texasiana PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 418; iii. 267, excl. syn. and var. (3. 

CHKMNITZ, ed. 2, (1846,) i. p. 85, excl. var. and figure. 

DESHAYES in Lara. ed. 3, iii. 316. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 707. 

DESHAYES in Fer. i. p. 74, pi. 1. c. (excl. synon.) 
Helix triodonta FERUSSAC, Mus. Par. 
Helix Tamaulipasensis LEA, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1857, p. 102. 

Deshayes, also, in Femssac's great work, confounds fati- 
giata with this. In Chemnitz, ed. 2, Pfeiffer makes the 
same errors of synonymy as in his Monograph. The fig- 
ure is not this species, nor is it easy to determine what 
it is. 

Shuttle worth, in his Diagnosen, has also pointed out 
Pfeiffer's error in placing fatigiata and plicata in the synon- 
ymy of this species. 

From notes received from Pfeiffer, and also from memo- 
randa taken by my father at the Garden of Plants, it 
appears that triodonta is identical with this species. On 
vol. i. p. 162, a different opinion is expressed on triodonta. 

The variety of this species figured on pi. 78, fig. 18, was 
at first considered a distinct species by me. Having sent 
specimens to Pfeiffer, he writes that they are merely va- 
rieties. It is distinguished by a wider umbilicus, and a 
somewhat different arrangement of teeth. 

There can be no doubt of the identity of H. Tamauli- 
pasensis with H. Texasiana. I have based my opinion on 
a careful examination of Mr. Lea's shell. His description 
is as follows : 

T. superne paulisper elevata, subplanulata, inferne subinflata, niti- 
da, longitudinaliter et subtiliter striata, minute perforata, anfr. 5 ; aper- 
tura lunata, tridentata ; labro spissato, reflexo. Texas. 

Pfeiffer describes a var. P, a larger form with 6 whorls, 
horn-colored, and having a reddish band revolving above 
the periphery. I have received it from Dr. Moore of 
Texas. 



80 IIELICEA. 

H. Texasiana is also found in the neighboring Mexican 
State of Tamaulipas. Reeve gives Alabama as the hab- 
itat. 

HELIX MOOREANA. 

PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURE 24. 

Testa orbiculato-depressa, carinata, umbilicata, albida ; spira obtusa, 
plus minusve elevata ; anfr. 6, vix convexiusculi, striati, ultimus infra 
carinam non rotundatus ; sutura impressa ; subtus striae minus distinctae ; 
anfr. 1^, ultimus carina valde producta anfr. alterum et umbilicum pro- 
fundum pene tegens ; apertura orbicularis, contracta, tridentata ; perist. 
album, incrassatum, vix reflexiusculum, margine basali dentibus duobus 
curvatis niarginalibus sinu parvulo orbiculari separatis, armato ; plica alba 
rectangularis, dentiformis, excavata, in medio apertura3 projecta adcolu- 
mellam adnata et perist. margines connectans. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix Mooreana W. G. BINNEY, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1857, p. 184; Notes p. 4. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell orbicular, depressed, white, carinated, umbilicated ; 
spire more or less depressed, obtusely rounded ; whorls 6, 
distinctly striated, hardly convex ; suture impressed ; be- 
low the carina the body whorl is not rounded, but slants 
down to the base which is parallel with the suture ; below, 
the striae are less distinct ; at the umbilical region only 1| 
whorl is visible, the outer one strongly carinated so as to 
conceal a portion of the umbilicus and a great part of the 
remaining whorl; the umbilicus is very small, but perfo- 
rates the shell to the apex, showing all the volutions with 
the aid of a lens ; aperture rounded, contracted by three 
teeth ; lip heavy, broad, white, hardly reflected, near the 
basal extremity, quite on the edge, armed with two short, 
incurving teeth, separated by a small, rounded sinus; on 
the columella there is a tooth-like fold, square, projecting 
across the aperture, its extremities joining those of the 
peristome. 



HELIX. 81 

Greater diameter 8*, lesser 7, height 3 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found in large numbers by 
Dr. Francis Moore in Washington Co., Texas. 

Remarks. It is difficult to express correctly in words 
the specific differences of the various Polygyrce. This 
shell combines the characteristics of several American 
species. It has the spire of H. monodon Rackett, and the 
columellar fold of Dorfeuilliana Lea, as figured Tr. Am. 
Phil. Soc. vi. pi. xxiv. f. 118. The teeth are placed on the 
inner edge of the peristome, as in Texasiana Mor., and the 
curious carination at the umbilical region resembles that 
of pustula Fer., which has not been noticed in descrip- 
tions. 



HELIX THOLUS. 

PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURE 21. 

Testa solidiuscula, albida, nitens, costis obliquis notata ; spira rotun- 
data, elevatiuscula, obtusa, tholiformis ; sutura valde impressa, anfr. 7, 
convexiusculi, superi magis planulati, ultimus ad aperturam descendens, 
obtuse carinatus, carina peristoma non attingens, post perist. canalicula- 
tus ; infra carinam costae minus distinctas; basis plana, umbilicus latus, 
perspectivus, anfractus eanaliculatos monstrans, quorum 2^ perspicue, alii 
obscure videntur ; apertura perobliqua, semicircularis, ab axe remota ; 
perist. album, latum, incrassatum, margine basali reflexiusculo, dentibus 
duobus sinu rotundato disjunctis armatum; plica parietalis acuta, in me- 
dio aperture projecta, margines peristomatis vix connectens. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix tholus W. G. BINNEY, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. 1857, p. 186; Notes, p. 6. 

f 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell rather solid, white, shining, ribbed above, smoother 
below ; spire obtuse, little elevated, rounded ; whorls seven, 
convex, the upper ones more flattened, the last bluntly 
carinated; carina not reaching the peristome; base paral- 
lel to the suture ; umbilicus broad, half the larger diame- 
ter of the shell, showing two and a half deeply grooved 

11 



82 HELICEA. 

whorls plainly, the others rapidly retreating towards the 
apex ; aperture very oblique, semicircular, removed from 
the axis of the shell, bordered with a scarcely reflected, 
white, heavy rim, grooved behind, and armed with two 
stout teeth near the basal extremity, broadly reflected at 
the junction with the body whorl ; on the parietal wall of 
the aperture is a white fold, hardly connecting the extrem- 
ities of the lip, and projecting across the aperture into an 
acute point. 

Greater diameter 11, lesser 9, height 4 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. When describing this species 
I had seen but one specimen of it in the collection of Mr. 
Bland. It was supposed to inhabit Texas. Since that 
time another specimen has been received by him from an 
undoubted Texan locality. 

Remarks. The aperture of this curious shell resembles 
that of H. fatigiata Say. It is readily distinguished from 
that and all other described species by the umbilicus, 
broad at the commencement, and rapidly narrowing be- 
yond the second whorl, with the peculiar groove visible in 
all the whorls of the umbilicus, of the same character as 
that noticed by Say in auriculata, though deeper. 

The name is derived from the resemblance of the slightly 
raised, rounded spire to a low dome. 

HELIX FATIGIATA SAY vol. ii. p. 193 (pars), pi. xxxix. fig. 4. 

Etlix fatigiala (Polygyra) SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 37. 

BINNEY in Bost. Journ. 1. c. ex parte, (excl. syn. et fig.) 

SHUTTLEWORTH, Diag. n. Moll. ii. 

BLAND, N. Y. Lyceum, vi. 283; Notes, 7. 
Helix Texasiana van B. CHEMNITZ, ed. 2. i. p. 86, excl. descr., syn. et fig. 

DESHAYES in Fer. i. p. 74, excl. desc., syn. et fig. 
Helix Texasiana j3 PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 418; iii. 267. 
Helix Dorfeuilliana DESHAYES in Fer. i. 73 (excl. syn.) pi. 69 D, fig. 3. 
Eelicina fastiyiata DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 82. 

The figure to which I have referred is a correct represen- 
tation of the specimen of H. fatigiata deposited by Mr. 



HELIX. 83 

Say in the collection of the Philadelphia Academy. It 
represents the only form of the species, those included by 
Binney under the same name being referred more properly 
to the succeeding species. There is consequently much 
confusion in the synonymy, remarks, and geographical 
notes of this group. The true H. fatigiata is described by 
Shuttleworth (1. c.) and figured by Deshayes under a wrong 
name, as well as placed in the text of his work among the 
synonyms of Texasiana. Pfeiffer in both of his works 
considers it as a variety (distinctius carinata) of Texasiana, 
and in Malac. Blatt, 1856, p. 11, declares Shuttleworth's 
notes on it unsatisfactory. DeKay has placed it in the 
genus Helicina. 

In the Boston Journal, Binney joins pustula to this 
species, though doubtfully. By his notes, taken at the 
Jardin des Plantes, it appears the species occurs there 
under the name of operculata Val. 

Bland has corrected the errors of previous writers, and 
thus points out the distinguishing characteristics of the 
species. 

H. fatigiata Say is larger than Troostiana Lea, plicata Say, 
and Dorfeuilliana Lea ; it is most nearly allied to the first, and 
through it is connected with the second, but wholly distinct from 
the last. The parietal tooth is more rectangular than that of Troos- 
tiana, in which it is slightly emarginate near the tip, but much 
more so in plicata, while the parietal tooth in Dorfeuilliana is 
rather quadrate. The teeth on the peristome in fatigiata and 
Troostiana are much alike, as regards form, size, and position, 
the superior one being the largest, both are larger and trans- 
verse in Dorfeuilliana and in plicata, the inferior one being the 
largest in the latter. Behind the peristome there are two small 
pits, showing the situation of the teeth in fatigiata and Troostiana, 
while there is scarcely more than a deep, well marked constriction 
in DoTJeuilliana, H. Troostiana has a slight groove on the inner 
side of the last whorl, the absence of which in fatigiata is noticed 



84 HELICEA. 

by Say, but I scarcely consider that a good specific character. 
Fresh specimens of H. fatigiata are, I believe, covered with a very 
thin epidermis, on which hairs are sparingly scattered, the scars 
of the hairs may be detected, especially on the last whorl, in denud- 
ed shells. 

H. fatigiata has, at a short distance within the aperture on the 
base of the last whorl, a small, detached, erect, rounded tubercle, 
answering probably the same purpose in the economy of the ani- 
mal, as the " fulcrum " originally noticed by Mr. Lea (Observa- 
tions, Vol. V. p. 80) in H. spinosa, though of a different construc- 
tion. 

I do not think the true fatigiata inhabits Ohio. It seems 
more properly to belong to the region of Tennessee. 

Pfeiffer's objection to the retention of the name, which 
is evidently a misprint, can hardly be removed, since the 
n&iae fastigiaia is already occupied by another species. 

HELIX HAZARDI BLAND. 

PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURE 13. 

Polyyyra plicata SAY, 1. c. ; (Binney's ed.) p. 21. 

Helix fatigiata BINNEY, in Bost. Journ. 1. c. (excl. syn. et fig ) in Terr. Moll. 

(excl. syn. et fig.) 

Helix Texasiana PFEIFFER, 1. c. (excl. syn. et descr.) 
CHEMNITZ, (excl. syn., descr. et fig.) 

Helix Dorfeuilliana DESHAYES, in Fer. 1. c. (excl. descr., syn. et fig.) 
Helix Troostiana W. G. BINNEY, Notes, p. 21. 

Helix Hazardi BLAND, N. Y. Lye. vi. 291 ; Notes 16, pi. ix. figs. 17-20. 
Helicina plicata DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 28. 

There are Kentucky specimens of this shell deposited 
in the Philadelphia Academy by Say. His description is 
as follows : 

POLYGYRA PLICATA. Shell convex beneath, depressed above, 
spire slightly elevated ; whorls five, compressed, crossed by numer- 
ous raised, equidistant lines, which form grooves between them ; aper- 
ture subreniform, labrum reflected, regularly arcuated, describing 
two thirds of a circle ; within two-toothed, teeth not separated by a 
remarkable sinus ; labrum with a profound duplicature, which ter- 



HELIX. 85 

minates in an acute angle at the centre of the aperture ; beneath 
exhibiting only two volutions, of which the external one is slightly 
grooved near the suture. 

Inhabits Alabama. Breadth, one fourth of an inch. Cabinet of 
the Academy. 

This species is about the same size as P. avara, but, besides 
other characters, it is sufficiently distinguished by the acute fold of 
the labrum. It was sent to the Academy by Mr. Samuel Hazard. 

A more careful study has induced me to change my 
opinion of the identity of this species with H. Troostiana. 

Bland is the only author who has correctly dealt with 
this species. His description is given below, while his 
figure is given on pi. 78, fig. 13. He proposed this name 
in place of Say's preoccupied one. 

This shell may be distinguished from fatigiata Say, and Troos- 
tiana Lea, independently of the absence of the carina, by its smaller 
size, and more particularly by the different form, relative size, and 
position of the teeth. In those species the superior tooth on the 
peristome is transverse, compressed, and larger than the inferior 
one, from which it is separated by a " remarkable sinus," distinctly 
visible on looking into the aperture ; the inferior tooth is obtuse. 
Immediately behind the peristome, the position of the teeth is 
marked by small shallow pits, giving the character to the last 
whorl designated by Shuttleworth " scrobiculato-constrictus" the 
striae run over the whorl up to the peristome. In H. Hazardi, the 
two teeth on the peristome are of the same character as the supe- 
rior one in fatigiata and Troostiana, the inferior tooth is how- 
ever the largest, and so partially conceals the lower margin of the 
superior one as to obstruct the view into the aperture, and give no 
appearance of separation " by a remarkable sinus." Both the teeth 
are more deeply seated than in the other species. The nature of 
the scrobiculation behind the peristome in H Hazardi alone suffi- 
ciently distinguishes it from its allies. The space behind the peris- 
tome, and between it and the curved pit, showing the seat of the 
superior tooth, is convex and smooth, the striae not extending over it. 
This species has, in common with fatigiata Say and Troostiana 



86 HELICEA. 

Lea, a thin, brown, but more sparingly hirsute epidermis. I have 
noticed the tubercle within the last whorl, near the aperture, in 
fatigiata and Troostiana, but no such process exists in the species 
now under consideration. In H. ffazardi, the inferior tooth of the 
labrum, at its inner end, is continued back within the aperture, 
forming a white erect lamella on the floor of the whorl, parallel 
with, and leaving a narrow sinus between it and the inner wall, to 
which it is joined at its extremity, about 2^- mill, from the edge of 
the peristome. The position of this lamella can be seen through 
the shell. 

The species is also found among the Cumberland Moun- 
tains of Tennessee (Elliott). 

Conrad, in the second volume (N. s.) of Silliman's Jour- 
nal, speaks of finding H. plicata Say in Florida. He prob- 
ably refers to some other species. 

t 

HELIX DORFEUILLIANA LEA. 

PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURES 2, 14. 

Helix Dorfeuilliana BLAND, Ann. N. Y. Lye. vi. p. 294; Notes, p. 18, pi. ix. figs. 

24-26; nee PFEIFFEK, DESHAYES, CHEMNITZ, REEVE. 

Helix fatiyiata BINNEY, Bost. Journ. et Terr. Moll. 1. c. (excl. deser., syn. et fig. ) 
Polygyra Dorfeuilliana LEA, 1. c. 

TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1839, ii. 222. 

The figure 2 which I have given is a fac-simile of Lea's ; 
his description is as follows : 

T. superne obtuso-conica, inferne subinflata, nitida, cornea, longi- 
tudinaliter striata, late umbilicata ; anfr. 6; apertura lunata, triden- 
tata. 

Shell above obtusely conical, below somewhat inflated, shining, 
horn color; longitudinally striate, widely umbilicate ; whorls six; 
aperture lunate, three toothed. 

Hab. Ohio. Mr. Dorfeuille, Cincinnati. 

Diam. .3 ; length .2 of an inch. 

Remarks. I adopt Mr. Say's genus Polygyra, believing the 
division, though very artificial, quite as good as many made by 
Lamarck. This species has, like P. fatigiata Say and P. plicata 



HELIX. 87 

Say, one large tooth on the left lip, and two smaller ones on the 
right lip. It differs from the first in not being carinate, from the 
last in being larger, and having larger strife. In the Dorfeuilliana 
the tooth on the left lip is large and square, with an indentation in 
the centre. The view into the mouth is nearly obstructed by the 
teeth, leaving, to appearance, three nearly square apertures. The 
superior part of the shell is striate, while the inferior part is nearly 
smooth, and exhibits two volutions. I have seen but a single speci- 
men, which, I believe, is the only one obtained by Mr. Dorfeuille, 
who obligingly sent it to me. 

Mr. J. G. Anthony obtained from Mr. Dorfeuille some 
facts concerning the original discovery of this species, 
which prove beyond all doubt that it was accidentally 
brought from Kentucky. It is not an inhabitant of Ohio. 

The species has been confounded with several others by 
Reeve, Pfeiffer, Deshayes, and Binney. Bland was the 
first after Lea to correctly treat it. He thus describes its 
characteristics : 

H. Dorfeuilliana Lea differs materially in its characters from the 
three preceding species ; the strise on the upper surface are not so 
well defined as in Troostiana, but more so than in Hazardi, while 
the base is more smooth than in either of them, having only very 
delicate stria?, with microscopic impressed spiral lines. 

The parietal tooth is quadrate, the two teeth on the right lip 
are more nearly of the same size and form than in fatigiata and 
Troostiana. In this species the inferior tooth is transverse, and in 
some specimens broader than the superior one, but has a somewhat 
pointed apex, both are very nearly equally deeply seated, but so 
far apart as to allow a view between them into the aperture, leav- 
ing, as Mr. Lea expresses it, " to appearance three nearly square 
apertures." Say would have described the two teeth as " separated 
by a remarkable sinus." The peristome of this is more thickened 
and less reflected than in the other species, behind it is deeply 
constricted, without any appearance of pits showing the position of 
the teeth within. 



88 HELICEA. 

H. Dorfeuittiana Lea varies in size, the following are the 
measurements of my largest and smallest specimens : 

Diam. maj. 8, rain. 7, alt. 3 mill. 
" 6 " 5" 3 

With respect to the shell considered by Shuttleworth to be H. 
Dorfeuilliana, it will be seen from the figure (PI. ix. fig. 26), 
which differs, as he says, from Lea's, that the superior tooth on the 
labrum is larger and more deeply seated than the inferior one, and 
that the latter, though more developed, is much of the same form 
as the inferior tooth in fatigiata and Troostiana. The parietal 
tooth partakes of the general character of that in Lea's type of 
Dorfeuittiana, but its lower and terminal margins project more 
perpendicularly from the parietal wall. The umbilical perforation 
is also larger, and the base of the shell is more smooth. 

The following are the measurements of a large specimen : 

Diam. maj. 9, min. 8, alt. 4. 

I am much inclined to consider this a distinct species, but remark 
upon it, as I believe it is more commonly found in cabinets under 
the name of Dorfeuittiana, than the shell described by Lea. 

H. Dorfeuittiana, and also the shell last considered, have a tuber- 
cle within, very similar to that in fatigiata and Troostiana. 

HELIX TROOSTIANA LEA. 
PLATE XXXIX. FIGURE 2. PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURE 11. 

Polygyra Troostiana LEA, 1. c. 

TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1839, iii. 222. 
Hvlix Troostiana PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 419; iii. 267. 

DESHAYES in Fer. i. 75, pi. 69 D. fig. 4. ? 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 376, pi. Ixv. figs. 21-24. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 706, (1852). 

BLAND, N. Y. Lye. vi. 288; Notes, 12, pi. ix. figs. 21-23. 
Helix fatigiata BINNEY in B. Journ. 1. c. ; in Terr. Moll., ex parte, ii. 193, pi. 

xxxix. fig. 2. 

Helix plicata SHUTTLEWORTH, Diag. n. Moll. p. 18, (1852). 
W. G. BINNEY, Notes, 11. 

A more careful examination of Lea's specimen has 
convinced rne of its specific distinction from plicata. On 
pi. 18, fig. 11, is a fac-simile of Lea's figure, and his 
description follows. 



HELIX. 89 

T. superne subplanata, inferne subinflata, cornea, longitudinaliter 
striata, late umbilicata ; anfr. 6 ; apertura lunata, tridentata. 

Shell above nearly flat, below somewhat inflated, horn color ; 
longitudinally striate, widely umbilicate ; whorls 6 ; aperture lunate, 
three-toothed. 

Habitat. Tennessee. Prof. Troost. 

Diarn. .4, length .2 of an inch. 

Remarks. This species strongly resembles P. Dorfeuilliana, here- 
in described, being nearly of the same size, and possessing most of 
its characters. It differs, however, in the large solid tooth on the 
left lip being more angular, and in the two teeth on the right lip 
being somewhat differently placed. In the striae it differs much, 
these being larger, much better defined, and passing over the whorls. 
In the umbilicus it is wider, and shows more of the two whorls. 
This shell forms the fourth of a group, the form of the apertures 
of which is exceedingly alike, viz. P. fatigiata Say, P. plicata 
Say, and P. Dorfeuilliana Nob. 

As appears in the synonymy, this species has been much 
more fortunate than its allies, having been correctly deter- 
mined by most writers. Shuttleworth, however, errone- 
ously refers it to plicata. 

Bland thus remarks on it : 

Mr. Lea has kindly allowed me to examine his original speci- 
men, which differs from mine only in having the parietal tooth 
somewhat more emarginate. 

H. Troostiana is very closely allied to H. fatigiata Say, from 
which I separate it with some hesitation. In its fresh state it has 
a thin, sparingly hirsute epidermis. I have moreover two speci- 
mens in my cabinet, (both hirsute,) which are as acutely carinated 
as fatigiata, with the striae as prominent below as above, (in one 
more numerous,) but both having the parietal tooth of Troostiana. 

I am not altogether satisfied with the validity of Shuttleworth's 
remark, that the superior tooth in fatigiata is larger and more 
conspicuous than in Troostiana. 

This species has the same tubercle within the last whorl as H. 
fatigiata. 

12 



9 HELICEA. 

HELIX CEREOLUS MUHLFELDT, vol. ii. p. 196. pi. xxxviii. pi. Ixxvii.fig. 23. 

Helix cereohis MUHLFELDT, Berlin Mag. viii. (1816,) p. 41, pi. ii. fig. 18. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 378 (1846), pi. Ixvi. figs. 1-3, (1849). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 262. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 698. 
Helix planorbula CHENU, Illustr. pi. xii. fig. 3. 
Polygyra septemvolva SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 11. 

Miihlfeldt's description was published in 1816, and not 
in 1818 as quoted by Pfeiffer and others. This gives to 
his name the priority over Say's. His figure is copied on 
pi. 77, fig. 23 ; his description is as follows : 

Testa orbicular!, uinbilicata, utrinque planata, alba, oblique subcostata, 
marginata, unidentata. 

Die scheibenrunde genahelte, beiderseits flache, weisse, zart schief 
geribbte Schale, hat eine gesaumte, einzahnige Miindung. 

Die im Durchmesser 4^ Linien, in der Hohe aber, kaum inehr als 1 Linie 
haltende, matt weisse, zarte, aus achte Windungen bestehende Schnecke, 
ist beiderseits flach, docb hebet sich auf der oberen Seite, die deutlich 
schief geribbt ist, der Wirbel ctwas empor, wodurch der Nabel der unteren 
Flache, die nur zart schief gestreift erscheint, um so tiefer wird. Die 
erste Windung ist auf ihrem Oberrande etwas gekielt, die Miindung rund 
berura gesaumt, und da, wo die innere Lippe umgeschlagen, und dein 
Bauch der ersten Windung angewachsen ist, mit einem aufstehendeu 
weissen Zahne verschen, der jedoch unausgewachsenen Exemplaren fehlt. 

Der Aufenthaltsort ist vermuthlich Westindien ? weil bei einer von 
daher gekommenen Parthie von Conchylien, sich etliche Exemplare 
befunden haben. 

An error of quoting Helix polygyrata Binney has crept 
into PfeifFer, Reeve, &c. The shell was never designated 
by that name. 

The two following species, possessed by Dr. Binney in 
large quantities, are confounded by him in the text. The 
true cereolus is the middle figure of the plate referred to. 
It admits, however, of considerable variety. The most 
prominent variation is that furnished with an elongated 
thread-like lamina winding along the wall of the inner 
whorl of the shell. It is usually visible through the outer 



HELIX. 91 

whorl, at a little distance behind the parietal tooth, (vol. 
iii. p. 32). This lamina does not, however, distinguish it 
from the allied species, H. microdonta. The variety is also 
characterized by a less expansive umbilicus. It occurs in 
vast numbers on the banks of Indian River, Florida. 

I am indebted to Mr. O. M. Dorman for fresh specimens 
of the true cereolus, found by him near St. Augustine. I 
have not received the species from any state but Florida, 
though Pfeiffer gives Georgia also as its habitat. 

Another variety is furnished with the alternating spots 
which distinguish H. microdonta. 

HELIX MICRODONTA DESHAYES. 

PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURE 23. 

Testa discoidea, planulata, albo-grisea, flammulis obliquis fuscis sub- 
rubescentibusve ornata ; superne spira depressissima, subtus profunde 
lateque in ambitu umbilicata, tenuissime et regulariter striata ; apertura 
obliqua, marginata, ovatosemilunari ; labio dente obliquo minimo proe- 
dito. Diara. 10; alt. 4 mill. (Deshayes.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES 

Helix microdonta DESHAYES, in Fer. Hist. i. p. 6, pi. Ixxii. fig. 13. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 380 (1846), pi. Ixvi. figs. 10-12, (1849). 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 409; iii. 262. 

REEVE, Con. Icon No. 705 (1852); No. 1040 (1S53), unspotted 

var. 
Helix plana DUNKER, Phil. Icon, i 3, p. 51, tab. iii. fig. 11. 

This shell was known to Dr. Binney by the numerous 
specimens in his cabinet from Florida Keys. He did not, 
however, recognize it as distinct. It is readily known by 
the alternating blotches of white on the under surface of 
the whorls, its heavier shell, less numerous whorls, and 
the internal lamina described under cereolus. This lamina 
and the white blotches are almost universally present. 
Specimens are common in cabinets. I have it from Key 
Biscayne, and many other Florida keys. Pfeiffer quotes 
it from Bermuda and Texas, and Poey from Cuba. The 
figure is copied from that of Deshayes. 



92 HELICEA. 

HELIX VOLVOXIS PARREYSS. 
PLATE LXXVIIi. FIGURE 17. 

T. umbilicata, orbiculato-eonvexa, tenuis, rufo-cornea, pellucida, regular- 
iter costulato-striata ; spira brevissima, convexa ; anf. 7 convexi, regulariter 
accrescentes, ultimus reliquis superne vix latior, angulatus, infra angu- 
lum inflatus, striatus, nitidus ; umbilicus latus, regularis, anfractu ultimo 
latissimo reliquis regulariter decrescentibus ; apertura majuscula, reni- 
formis ; perist. intus callosum, reflexum, marginibus callo brevi, triangu- 
lari dentiformi junctis. Diam. maj. 9, min. 8, alt. 4 mill. (Pfeiffer.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix volvoxis PARREYSS in Pfeiffer Symb. iii. p. 80; Mon. Hel. Viv. i. p. 409; 
iii. p. 262. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2,i. 379 (1846), pi. Ixvi. figs. 4-6. (1849). 

KEEVE, Con. Icon. No. 1237, (1854). 
Polygyi*a septemvolva BECK V abs. desc. teste Pfr. 

This species is readily distinguished by its smoother 
surface, its uniform color, and its regular under surface, 
exhibiting fewer volutions than any of the other forms. 
I have not detected any internal lamina. It is also the 
smallest of the group. I have it from St. Simon's Isle, 
Georgia, (Postell,) and Jacksonville, Fla. (Dorman.) It 
occurs in immense numbers. The outside figures on pi. 
38, and the upper line of pi. 39, are probably drawn from 
varieties of this species. 

HELIX HINDSI PFEIFFER vol. iii. p. 17, pi. Ixxviii. figs. 5, 6, 8. 

Helix Hindsi PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii, 265. 

KEEVE, Con. Icon. No. 712, (1852). 

I have added to an enlarged view of the aperture on pi. 
78, outlines of Pfeiffer's figures in Chemnitz. 

HELIX LEPORINA GOULD vol. ii. p. 199, pi. xl. a. fig. 1. 

Helix leponna REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 722, (1852). 

BLAND, N. Y. Lye. vi. 348; Notes, 39. 
Helix pustula (3 PFEIFFER, Mon. iii. 268. 

This species reaches a much more northern limit than 



HELIX. 93 

would have been anticipated. It occurs in Illinois (Ken- 
nicott !) Indiana (Ingalls) also at St. Simon's Isle, 
Ga. (Postell!) Savannah (Elliott!) and on the Cattahoo- 
chee River, Ga. (Neisler!) 

From letters received from Dr. Pfeiffer, he seems to have 
reversed his opinion regarding the identity of this species 
and H. pustula. 

" Within and near the aperture, there is what may be 
called the ' fulcrum] extending from the floor of the last 
to that of the penultimate whorl, and approaching in 
character to, but less strongly developed, than that in H. 
monodon Rack. The outer edge of this fulcrum is un- 
even, in one of my specimens somewhat denticulated." 
(Bland.) 

HELIX PUSTULOIDES BLAND. 
PLATE XXXIX. FIGURE 3. 

This is the pustula of the Terrestrial Mollusks (vol. ii. 
p. 201) and not of Ferussac. Eland's description is given 
below from the N. Y. Ann. vi. 350, Notes, 40. 

The species has been detected at Darien, Ga. (Dr. S. 
W. Wilson,) Columbus, Ga. (Neisler.) 

T. late et perspective umbilicata, planorboidea, tenuiuscula, rufo-vel 
pallide-cornea, minute striatula; epidermide tenui, pilosiuscula ; spira 
vix elevata; anfr. 4-4^, convexiusculis, lente accrescentibus, ultimo 
superne ad peripheriam obtuse angulato, ad aperturam gibboso-constricto, 
subito deflexo, basi deviante ; sutura valde impressa ; umbilico lato, 
diam. maj. aequante, omnes anfractus monstrante, praesertim penultimum ; 
apertura obliqua, lunato-circulari ; dente erecto, obliquo, albo, lamelli- 
formi, in pariete aperturali munito, callo lineari subarcuato superne ad 
angulum aperturae juncto ; perist. reflexo, roseo, marginibus conniventi- 
bus, dentibus duobus sinu disjunctis instructo. 

If. pustuloides is intermediate in size between H. pustula and H. 
leporina, is less globose than the former, and more sparingly hir- 
sute. It differs widely from both in the character of the umbilicus, 



94 HELICEA. 

the aperture is much like that of pustida, but more narrow than 
that of leporina. The inferior tooth on the peristome is more de- 
veloped laterally than in H. pustula, indeed it has a somewhat 
bifid appearance, in which respect it is more allied to H. leporina. 

The fulcrum in H. pustuloides is of the same nature as that in 
H. leporina, but less developed, and with the outer edge entire. 

As to the station of the species, I copy the following from one 
of his (Dr. Wilson's) interesting letters : 

" The place has an eastern exposure to the sea, high tides rising 
to the base of the low bluff where they exist. The growth of trees, 
which consists mostly of live oak and Celtis occidentalis, has never 
been cleared off; the Palmetto serrulata flourishes as an under- 
growth. The soil is covered for a few inches in depth with oyster- 
shells thrown there by the Indians, and decayed leaves and frag- 
ments of branches are of course over all these, under which, and 
among the superficial oyster-shells, the Helices live. H. pustula 
is nowhere near, or at least a rigid search did not reveal any. H. 
concava (dead) occurs in small numbers. If. inflecta abun- 
dantly." 

HELIX PUSTULA FERUSSAC. . . .vol. ii. p. 201 (ex parte), pi. Ixxvii fig. 12. 

T. orbiculato-depressa, tenue striata, angusle umbilicata ; umbilico 
obtuso ; rufa vel pallide cornea; anfr. angustis, convexiusculis, sutura 
depressa conjunctis, ultimo basi convexiore prope aperturam deflexo, 
eoarctato : apertura angusta, arcuata, obliqua, alba ; marginibus reflexis, 
basi dente mediocri, linguiformi, conjunctis ; labro bidentato, dentibus 
approximatis inagqualibus. (Deshayes.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix pustula DESHAYES in Fei - . i. 78. 

PFEIFFER, iii. 268, (excl. /?). 
CHEMNITZ, i. 376, (1846). 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 721, (1852). 
BLAND, N. Y. Lye. vi. 346; Notes, 36. 

I have given a fac-simile of Ferussac's figure of this 
species, there being no correct one in the Mollusks. As 
already observed, the pustula of Binney is not Ferussac's ; 
it is pustuloides Bland. It is readily distinguished by its 



HELIX. 95 

more contracted umbilicus, as well as the following char- 
acteristics noticed by Bland. 

The groove within the umbilicus is a very marked feature in 
Ferussac's species, and though not referred to in the description, is 
distinctly shown in one of his figures ; it is entirely wanting in H. 
leporina, and also in pustuloides. This groove is not only an ex- 
ternal character, but its presence modifies the internal structure of 
the shell. On opening the base of the last whorl immediately be- 
hind the aperture, a strongly developed transverse tubercle is seen 
within, from which a strong ridge-like lamella runs round the umbil- 
ical opening, corresponding in extent with the groove. This tuber- 
cle, and the extension of it, are entirely disconnected by a sinus or 
channel from the floor of the penult whorl. 

The hirsute character of this species is not alluded to by any 
author. The outer edge of the peristome in specimens from St. 
Augustine, is of a deep rose color. 

The true pustula has been found at various localities in 
Georgia, at St. Augustine, Fla. (Dorman), and in Texas, 
(Moore, Roemer.) 

HELIX LABYRINTHICA SAY vol. ii. p. 202, pi. xvii. fig. 3. 

Helix labyrinthica SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 10. 

CHEMNITZ, 1. c. i. 382, (1846). 
PFEIFFEK, 1. c. iii. 262. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 728, (1852). 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. 39, pi. iii. fig. 31. 
DESHAYES, in Fer. i. 210. 

I have specimens of H. labyrinthica from the Northwest, 
Canada, Florida, and Texas. Its range is probably not 
surpassed by that of any other species. 

Lea is erroneously given as authority for the specific 
name in Adams's Genera of Recent Mollusca. 

HELIX LIGERA SAY vol. ii. p. 204, pi. xxxv. 

Helix liyera SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 19. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 40, excl. fig. 



96 HELICEA. 

CHEMNITZ, i. 208, (1846). 

PFEIFFER, iii. 49. 

DESHAYES in Fer. i. 184. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 493, (1852). 
Helix Rafinesquea PFEIFFER, Symb. i. 39, (1841). 
Helix Wardiana TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1839, ii. 221. 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 46. 

Helix Rafinesquea Ferussac may be H. gularis, as it is 
included among the group of that species in the Tableaux 
Systematiques. Deshayes, however, in the continuation 
of the Histoire refers it to ligera, as does Pfeiffer in his 
later works. 

DeKay's figure is too little characteristic to be referred 
with certainty to any species. 

H. Wardiana is universally acknowledged as a variety 
of this species. 

Found also in Pennsylvania (Conrad!) and Kentucky 
(Kennicott !) 

HELIX INTERTEXTA BINNEY vol. ii. p. 206, pi. xxxvi. 

Helix intertexta DEKAY, N. Y. Moil. p. 38, pi. iii. fig. 29. 
CHEMNITZ, i. 208, (1846). 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 49. 
EEEVE, Con. Icon. No. 668, (1852). 

There is a strongly carinated, depressed form, occurring 
at 'the South, which forms a prominent variety. 

The specimen figured is unusually large. 

It is also found in Indiana, New York, Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and Georgia. It also occurs fossil in 
the Postpleiocene of the West. 

HELIX SOLITARIA SAY , vol. ii. p. 208, pi. xxiv. 

Helix solitana SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 19. 

DE!VAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 43, pi. iii. fig. 41. 

CHEMNITZ, i. 180, (1S46). 

PFEIFFER, iii. 98. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 662, (1852). 

The smaller variety mentioned in my Notes, p. 27, may, 



HELIX. 97 

perhaps, be referred to the following species. It was found 
at Fort Bridger. 

Say's type is still preserved in the Academy at Phila- 
delphia. 

The species occurs in the Postpleiocene. It is doubtful 
whether it will ever be found in New York as DeKay an- 
ticipates. 

HELIX COOPERI. 

PLATE LXXVII. FIGURE 11. 

Testa umbilicata; elevatoglobosa : solida ; striis obliquis increment! et 
lineis spiralibus leviter intercidentibus notata ; alba, ad peripheriam fas- 
cia unica, angusta, rufa, cincta, aut fasciis et lineis rufis, volventibus, 
varie dispostis, ornata ; sutura impressa ; spira elevata ; anfr. 5 convexi, 
ultimus rotundatus, ad aperturam valde descendens ; umbilicus mediocris, 
pervius, 1-5 diam. maj. testse asquans ; apertura perobliqua, circularis ; 
perist. simplex, incrassatum, ad uinbilicum reflexiusculum, marginibus 
valde approximatis, callo albo, crasso, conjunctis. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix Cooperi W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. 1858, p. 118; Notes, 
p. 16. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell umbilicated ; elevated, globose ; solid, with ob- 
lique incremental striae intersected with delicate spiral 
lines ; color white, variously marked with a single narrow 
band, or broader longitudinal and spiral patches of reddish- 
brown ; suture impressed ; spire elevated ; whorls five, 
convex, the last rounded, very decidedly deflected at the 
aperture ; umbilicus moderate, pervious, l-5th the greater 
diameter of the shell ; aperture very oblique, circular ; 
perist. simple, thickened, reflected at the umbilicus, with 
its extremities very nearly approached, and joined by a 
heavy white callus. 

Greater diameter, 15 ; lesser, 13 ; height, 9 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found by Dr. F. V. Hayden 

13 



98 HELICEA. 

(Yellowstone Riv. Ex. Ex.) in considerable quantities 
among the Black Hills of Nebraska Territory. 

Remarks. The shells collected were weather-worn, but 
sufficiently fresh to show considerable variety in the dispo- 
sition of the bands and revolving patches of coloring. 

Resembles nearly no described American species. Has 
an elevated spire like H. Pennsylvanica Green, and some- 
what approaches H. solitaria Say. It is, however, very 
much smaller, has rougher striae and revolving lines ; the 
umbilicus is different, as is also the circular aperture, with 
nearly approaching ends like H. vittata Mull., of Ceylon. 
There is a curious variety of H. solitaria Say, found by 
Lieut. Bryan at Bridger's Pass, which may be compared 
with this in size ; but the only specimen I have examined 
has no revolving lines, and wants the characteristic aper- 
ture. Some specimens of this species have a more flat- 
tened spire. 

Named in honor of Dr. J. G. Cooper, of P. R. R. Survey. 

HELIX ALTERNATA SAY vol. ii. p. 212, pi. xxv. 

Helix alternata SAY, (Binney's ed.) pp. 6, 21, pi. 69, fig. 2. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. 1. c. non scabm. 

PFEIFFER, iii. 98. 

DESHAYES, in Fer. i. 89. 

CHEMNITZ, i. 181. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 670, (1852). 

BILLINGS, 1857, Canad. Nat. 2, 99, figs. 4, 5. 
Helix scabra CHENU, Illust. tab. vi. fig. 11. 
Helix infecta PFEIFFER, Mai. Bl. 1857, p. 86 non REEVE. 
Helix strongylodes ? PFEIFFER, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 53. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 1296, (1854). 

I have specimens of this species collected from Canada 
to Texas, and most of the intervening States. I do not 
know of its existence in Florida. It is found plentifully in 
the Postpleiocene of Natchez Bluff, still retaining its color. 

Helix mordax Shuttleworth will, I think, prove a variety 
of this species. H. strongylodes is also a variety, to judge 
from the figure I have given, (pi. 77, fig. 8,) drawn by Mr. 



HELIX. 99 

Sowerby from the type in the Cumingian collection. In 
regard to H. infecta, I cannot find specific characters in 
the specimen kindly sent me by Dr. Pfeiffer. The original 
descriptions of these two forms now follow : 

HELIX INFFCTA. T. umbilicata, conoideo-depressa, tenuiter costulato- 
striata, corucoalbida, rufo obsolete fasciata et radiata; spira conoidea, 
vertice subtili ; anfr. 6 convexiusculi, lente accrescentes, ultimus antice 
non descendens, peripheria obsoletissime angulatus; umbilicus conicus, 
diametri subsequans ; apertura diagonalis, lunato rotundata ; perist. 
simplex, rectum, marginibus convergentibus, columellari subpatulo. 
Diam. maj. 17 ; min. 15 ; alt. 9 mill. Hab. in Canada teste Parreyss. 

H. STRONGYLODES. H. t. umbilicata, convexo-depressa, solidula, oblique 
costulata, albida, maculis rufis superne variegata ; spira parum elevata, 
obtusa; anfr. 6,sensini accrescentibus, primis isculis planu, sequentibus 
convexis, ad suturam tumidis, ultimo non descendente, terete; umb. per- 
spectivus, | diametri aequante; apertura diagonali,lunato-rotundata ; perist. 
simplice, recto, --marginibus subconvergentibus, columellari superne for- 
nicatim patente. Diam. maj. 19 ; min. 16 J ; alt. 83- mill. Hab. Texas. 

HELIX MORD AX SHUTTLE WORTH vol. iii. p. 19. 

Helix mordax PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 635. 

I have already expressed my belief that this is a mere 
variety of alternata. Pfeiffer (1. c.) merely repeats the 
original description, not having seen the shell. 

HELIX CUMBERLANDIANA LEA vol. ii. p. 216, pi. xxxi. 

Carocotta Cumberlandiana TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1843, ii. 124. 
Eelix Cumberlandiana PFEIFFER, iii. 114. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 701, (1852). 

HELIX STRIATELLA ANTHONY vol. ii. p. 217, pi. xxx. fig. 2. 

Helix striatella CHEMNITZ, ii. 115. 

PFEIFFER, iii. 100. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 727, (1853). 
Helix ruderata ADAMS in Sill. Journ. 40, p. 408. 

Pfeiffer refers to this species the figure of Ferussac (t. 79, 
fig. 7) referred to perspectiva by Binney. 

The species has been found also in Kansas, Wisconsin, 
and the District of Columbia. 



100 HELICEA. 

HELIX LIMATULA BINNEY vol. ii. p. 219, pi. xxx. fig. 2. 

Has also been detected in Michigan. 

HELIX MINUTISSIMA LEA. 

PLATE LXXVII. FIGURES 6, 7. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix minutissima LEA, Trans, ditto, vol. ix. p. 17. 

TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1843, ii. 124. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 87; iii. 83. 
Helix minuscula teste BINNEY, vol. ii. p. 221. 

ANTHONY, Ohio Cat. Jan. 1843. 

There is every reason for reversing the decision of the 
identity of this and minuscula, expressed by Binney and 
Anthony. Lea's original specimen is figured in the plate 
from a drawing by Dr. Leidy. I give Lea's description 
below. The shell is readily distinguished from minuscula 
by its smaller size, less expanded umbilicus, minute striee, 
and its greater resemblance in outline to H. chersina. 
Lea's specimen came from Ohio. It has been sent me 
from Greenwich, N. Y., by Dr. Ingalls. 

Though considered in the Terrestrial Mollusks as a va- 
riety only of minuscula, I find a note taken by rny father at 
Mr. Lea's collection, in which he says it is not the same. 

This is our smallest shell, being one-fourth less in diam. 
than H. exigua St. The umbilicus is wide, and shows 
some of the interior volutions though not so expanded 
as H. minuscula or exigua. The apex is distinctly and 
readily seen in the two last, and the suture is very much 
more impressed. H. minutissima has delicate striae, but 
no ribs. The spire is variable in height. 

HELIX MINUTISSIMA Lea. T. subglobosa, supra obtuso-conoidea, subtus 
convexa, fusco-cornea, rmnutissime striata, umbilicata ; suturis impressis ; 
anfr. 4, rotundatis; apertura subrotundata, lab. acuto. Cincinnati. 

Diam. .06, length, .04. It is the smallest species of our country which 
has come under my notice. Its very minute longitudinal strise can only 



HELIX. 101 

be observed by a powerful lens. The umbilicus is rather large and deep. 
It is nearly the form of H. Idbyrinthica Say, but is a smaller species, is 
differently striated, and has no teeth. Found on wet sticks on the mar- 
gin of a pond. 

HELIX MILIUM MORSE. 

The shell figured on plate 79, figs. 4 and 5, from a draw- 
ing of Mr. E. S. Morse, was sent me from Portland by 
that gentleman under this name. To publish it here 
would be anticipating his own description. 

Since writing the above the description of this species 
has been published. It is given below, although it 
appeared after January 1st, 1859, the date to which the 
subject is brought down. 

It is taken from the Proc. of Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. vii. 
p. 28, April, 1859. 

Shell minute, transparent, shining ; epidermis white, with a 
greenish tinge ; distinctly and regularly striated above ; whorls 
rounded, rapidly enlarging ; suture very deeply impressed ; spire 
slightly elevated ; microscopic lines running parallel with the 
whorls, more conspicuous beneath ; umbilicus quite large, deep, 
and showing all the volutions ; outer lip sharp. Diam. 0.05 ; 
height, 0.02. 

Distribution. Portland, Me. ; Augusta, Me. ; Bethel, Me. ; 
Saco, Me. ; Westbrook, Me. 

Observations. The rapidly enlarging whorls remind one at first 
sight of the young of H. indentata Say. The under side resem- 
bles slightly the young of H. minuscula Binney. It is about the 
size of H. minutissima Lea. 

The peculiarities of the shell are its diminutive size, its rapidly 
enlarging and well rounded whorls, its deep and regular striations, 
which become obscure at the apex, and the microscopic lines run- 
ning parallel with the whorls. 

This little shell I first found at Mt. Independence, Westbrook, 
Me., August 16, 1857, in company with Pupa exigua Say, and 
the smaller Helices. 

Found generally on low lands, where they seemed to be sur- 



102 HELICEA. 

rounded with water, though it has been found on high lands where 
the ground was comparatively dry. Mr. Charles B. Fuller, of 
Portland, found them quite numerous in a grove of pines, an unu- 
sual place for Helices to be found in. 

HELIX EXIGUA STIMPSON vol. iii. p. 16, pi. Ixxvii. fig. 19. 

Helix exigua PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 102. 

Helix annulata CASE in Sill. Journ. May, 1847, vol. iii. p. 101; Ann. and Mag. 

Nat. Hist. 1847, p. 338. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. 
Helix slriatella junior, GOULD, Sill. Journ. 1. c. 276. 

I also have specimens of this shell from Canada. 

As suggested by Stimpson, (Shells of N. E. p. 55,) H. 
exigua is identical with annulata Case, which name, being 
preoccupied, will not stand. Gould, 1. c., declares annu- 
lata to be the young of striatella, an opinion he seems to 
have withdrawn by including Stimpson's description in 
vol. iii. He was at first rather inclined to refer the species 
to costata (vid. note to Case's description, 1. c.) 

I have given a fac-simile of one of Case's figures, which 
are characteristic, though rough. His description is given 
below. Pfeiffer copies both descriptions, not having seen 
either of the shells. 

Shell minute, much depressed ; umbilicus showing all the volutions ; 
aperture simple and somewhat oval ; whorls four, banded by sharp par- 
allel ribs, inclining slightly forward ; intercostal space marked with waved 
lines, running parallel with the whorls ; nearly transparent ; diam. about 
one line. 

This minute but beautiful shell was found by Dr. B. A. Stanard, in 
the region about Lake Superior, and I have heard of its being observed 
in other places, but so far as I can learn it is undescribed. It differs 
from any description of the pulchella I have yet met with, in having 
uniformly an oval aperture and simple lip. The minuta of Say I believe 
never has the parallel ribs, and is supplied with a lip. 

HELIX MINUSCULA BINNEY vol. ii. p. 221, pi. xvii. a. fig. 2. 

Helix minuscula PFEIFFER, iii. 90. 
CHEMNTZ, ii. 112. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 731, (1852). 



HELIX. 103 

Helix minutalis MOKELET nee. Fer. Test. Nov. ii. p. 7. 
Helix apex ADAMS, Contr. Conch, p. 36. 

EEEVE, 1. c. 339. 

Helix Lavelleana Orb. Moll. Cub. in textu, p. 161, excl. tab. (1853). 
Helix Mauriniana Orb. 1. c. in tab. viii. figs. 20-22, excl. textu. 

Has been detected also in Michigan, Georgia, New 
York, and in Washington Co. Texas (Moore). Is also 
found in Cuba, Porto Rico, and Jamaica. 

In Mai. Blatt. ii. 93, Pfeiffer states that H. Lavelleana 
is represented in the British Museum by poor specimens 
of minuscula. I follow the same author in placing minu- 
talis and apex in the synonymy. 

They are thus described. 

Helix apex. Shell discoidal ; whitish ; with microscopic spiral strias ; 
spire scarcely elevated, convex ; apex very obtuse ; whorls 4, cylindri- 
cal, with a deep suture ; aperture nearly circular ; lip thin and sharp ; 
umbilicus very wide. 

Helix minutalis. T. perspective umbilicata, subdiscoidea, minute stria- 
tula, corneo-albicans ; anfr. 4 convexiusculi, sutura impressa distincti ; 
apertura vix obliqua, subcircularis ; peristoma simplex, marginibus ap- 
proximatis. 

Hab. circa pagum Palizada provinciae Yucatenensis, necnon in insula 
Cubana. 

HELIX ASTERISCUS MORSE. 
PLATE LXXV1I. FIGURE 9. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix astenscus MORSE, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vi. p. 128, March, 1857. 

Animal short, bluish. 

Shell small, orbicular, very much depressed ; whorls four, 
rounded above and below ; banded by twenty-five to thirty very 
thin, transparent, and prominent ribs, very oblique, inclined back- 
ward ; spire not rising above the last whorl ; suture deeply im- 
pressed ; umbilicus moderately large, showing all the volutions ; 
finely striated between the ribs ; in some specimens parallel lines 
may be observed. Color light brown. 

Dimensions : breadth, T ^ in. ; height, 7^ in. 



104 HELICEA. 

Found at Bethel, Me., in company with Pupa pentodon and Pupa 
exigua, September 28, 1856. 

Observations. This shell differs from H. annulata Case, in being 
smaller, the umbilicus not so large, spire not elevated, intercostal 
space not marked with parallel lines, but finely striated ; the color 
is also different. 

Its peculiar thin, transparent ribs, depressed spire, and deep 
umbilicus, are prominent features that can never confound it with 
other species. 

The above is Morse's description from the Proceedings 
of the Boston Society of Natural History, March, 1857, 
vol. vi. p. 128. 

The figure is very much enlarged from a specimen 
kindly sent me by the discoverer. The species is very dis- 
tinct, and cannot readily be confounded with any other 
now known to inhabit America. Another character which 
easily distinguishes it from the nearest allied species, H. 
exigua, is this : the ribs are much less numerous and seem 
formed by a continuation or lapping over of the epidermis 
at every period of repose from growth of the shell. 

It is difficult to imagine on what grounds Gould could 
have based the opinion copied below from the Boston 
Proc. vi. 72. 

This species, the most minute of any yet observed, was found by 
Mr. Morse in the vicinity of Portland, and has been collected also 
at several localities in Massachusetts. Dr. Gould considered it to 
be the species described by Mr. Lea, under the name of Helix 
minutissima. It was regarded by Dr. Binney as the young of 
H. minuscida, but Dr. Gould believed it to be a distinct species. 

HELIX KOPNODES. 

PLATE LXXX. FIGURE 14. 

Testa depresso-globosa, corrugata, subtus laevigata ; spira brevis, de- 
pressa ; sutura mediocris ; anfr. quinque, rapide accrescentes, ultiinus 
permagnus, ventricosus, interdura lineis volventibus crassis notata; aper- 
tura magna, rotundata ; perist. simplex, acutura, marginibus approximatis, 



HELIX. 105 

callo levi, brunneo conjunctis, ad umbilicum parvum et profundum 
reflexiusculum. 

SYNONYMS ANB REFERENCES. 

Helix Tcopnodes W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Se. Phila. 1857, p. 186; Notes, 6. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell depressed globose, wrinkled, below smooth ; spire 
short, depressed ; suture moderate ; whorls five, rapidly 
increasing, the last very ventricose and large, sometimes 
marked with coarse revolving lines ; aperture large, round, 
lip simple, acute, ends approached, joined by a slight dep- 
osition of brownish callus over the parietal wall, reflected 
at the small and deep umbilicus. 

Greater diameter, 35 ; lesser, 28 ; height, 13 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found in Alabama in con- 
siderable quantity by C. S. Hale, Esq., and Dr. E. R. 
Showalter. 

Remarks. I was at first inclined to consider it an 
unnaturally developed form of fuliginosa, but have since 
been convinced of its being distinct by large suites of 
various stages of growth. The color is lighter, the shell 
larger, heavier, less globose ; the umbilicus is narrower ; 
the aperture larger, and less rounded ; the spire less ele- 
vated. The heavy, interrupted revolving lines are present 
in four out of six specimens before me. 

Reeve's figure 672 has some resemblance to it in shape, 
though less globose, and described as striate. 

HELIX FTJLIGINOSA BINNEY vol. ii. p. 222, pi. xxxl. 

Helix fuliginosa CHEMNITZ, ii. 104. 
PFEIFFER, iii. 83. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 675, (1852). ? 

This can hardly be the species designated by Ferussac 
as H. Icevigata. His figure and the opinion of Deshayes, 

14 



106 HELICEA. 

in his continuation of the Histoire, are both opposed to 
this theory. Rafinesque, it must be remembered, is respon- 
sible for the application of the name Icevigata to a striated 
shell. He makes, however, greater errors than this. 

If Rafinesqu'e notices fuliginosa at all, it is in the Enu- 
meration, &c. &c. p. 3. 

Omphalina Differs from Helix by no lips, but an ombalic. 
0. cuprea. Suboval, four spires, smooth, brittle, diaphanous coppery, 
shining, opening very large. In Kentucky. 

Griffith writes to Binney that lucubrata is the same as 
fuliginosa. Adams, 1. c., gives the same opinion, as does 
also Anthony in his Ohio Catalogue. Notwithstanding 
the opinion of these authors, I am inclined to believe that 
neither lucubrata nor Icevigata have any connection with 
fuliginosa. From letters of Say, in the possession of Mr. 
Bland, it appears he was unacquainted with fuliginosa. 
As regards lucubrata it is a Mexican species. If known 
to us at all, it is by PfeifFer's redescription of it under the 
name of caduca. Specimens of this last agree perfectly 
with Mexican specimens of lucubrata preserved for many 
years in the Philadelphia Academy. It is, however, at 
present impossible to decide whether lucubrata has been 
met with since Say found it in Mexico, (see Binney's ed. 
p. 36). 

HELIX FRIABILJS. 

PLATE LXXX. FIGURE 2. 

Testa globosa, papyracea, friabilis, subdiaphana, nitens, rufescens ; 
spira parvula, elevato-conica ; anfr. quatuor, laeviter corrugati, convexi, 
ultimus permagnus, ventricosissimus ; sutura mediocris ; apertura circu- 
laris, parum alta et longa, intus livida, callo levi, albo sub-incrassata ; 
perist. acutum, tenue, simplex, ad basin reflexiusculum, violaceum, um- 
bilicum parvum et profundum aliquantum tegens. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix friabilis W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. 1857, p. 187; Notes, 
p. 7. 



HELIX. 107 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed, 

Shell very globose, transparent, brittle, thin, shining, 
reddish ; spire very short, conic ; whorls four, convex, 
lightly wrinkled, rapidly increasing, the last very large and 
ventricose ; suture moderate ; aperture circular, equally 
high and broad, within bluish and slightly thickened by a 
very thin white callus ; perist. simple, sharp, thin, at its 
junction with the body whorl, violet-colored and reflected, 
so as to cover a portion of the small and deep umbilicus ; 
the parietal wall of the aperture is covered with a light 
violet-colored callus. 

Greater diameter, 26 ; lesser, 20 ; height, 13 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found by Mrs. Say on the 
banks of the Wabash, Indiana, and in Illinois by Kenni- 
cott. Occurs also in Alabama (Showalter), and Texas, 
(Moore). 

Remarks. Belongs to the same group as H. fuliginosa 
Binney but readily distinguished from that and all de- 
scribed species by its transparent, globular shell, ventricose 
body whorl, and circular aperture. At the localities where 
it was found it seems to take the place of H. fuliginosa , 
as that species does not occur with it. 

The specimen figured was found by Mrs. Say, as stated 
above. From Texas the specimens are much heavier. 

HELIX CADUCA PFEIFFER, 

This species was originally described from Mexico, but 
is catalogued by Roemer (Texas, 455) as found at New 
Washington. The species is nearly allied, if not identi- 
cal, with lucubrata Say, as already observed in the remarks 
on H. fuliginosa. Pfeiflfer's description is given below. 

T. umbilicata, depressa, fragilis, breviter striatula, albida, epidemic 
f ulvo-cornea induta ; spira parum elevata, vertice subtili ; anfr. 5 con- 
vexiusculi, ultimus inulto latior, basi subplanulatus, circa umbilicum 



108 HELICEA. 

latum angustum, externe subinfundibuliformem excavatus ; apertura 
majuscula, oblique truncato-ovalis ; perist. simplex, tenue, marginibus 
subconniventibus, callo tenuissimo junctis, columellari vix expansiusculo. 
Diam. maj. 27, min. 22, alt. 14 mill. 

HELIX LJEVIGATA PFEIFFER vol. ii. p. 225, pi. xxxii. 

Helix kevigala PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 64; iii. 67, (excl. syn.) 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2. ii. 106, pi. 84, figs. 17-19, (excl. syn.) 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 672, (1852). V 
DESHAYES in Fer. i. 94. 

Helix lucubrata BINNEY, 1. c. nee. SAY. 

Helix fuliyinosa BINNEY in B. J. (pars., excl. desc., syn., et fig.) 

Helix Inornata REEVE, 1. c. 666. 

I have given the synonymy of this species in full to 
show under how many names it has appeared. It ap- 
pears to have been sent to Ferussac by Rafinesque under 
the name it bears, though no description of it by that 
author is extant. Ferussac mentions it by name only in 
his Tableaux (1821), with no reference, however, to the 
figure which afterwards appeared (1832) in the Histoire. 
In 1840, Binney evidently refers to it in the Boston Jour- 
nal as a striated variety of fuliginosa and quotes Ferus- 
sac's figure. He also suggests its identity with lucubrata. 
In 1848 the first description of the shell was published by 
Pfeiffer, whom I have given as the authority for the spe- 
cific name. In continuing Ferussac's great work, De- 
shayes also describes the shell, as does also Pfeiffer in 
the second edition of Chemnitz. It was therefore well 
established and universally known by the name of Icevi- 
gata when the Terrestrial Mollusks appeared. The name 
proposed by Binney would not, therefore, have precedence 
over Pfeiffer's, even had it been an entirely new name. 
Binney, however, commits the error of applying to this 
species Say's name of lucubrata^ though there is no evi- 
dence of Say's ever having seen the species. On the 
other hand, in Mr. Poulson's collection are specimens of 
Icevigata labelled by Say " Helix Claiborne, Ala." 



HELIX. 109 

The label written during the last few years of Say's life 
shows conclusively his ignorance of the species. 

Pfeiffer, Deshayes, Chemnitz, and Reeve have con- 
founded H. inornata with this species, even quoting in 
some instances Binney's figure of inornata in the Boston 
Journal, which represents an entirely smooth shell. Pfeif- 
fer also quotes H. rufa DeKay as a synonym of Icevigata. 
It seems rather to be the young of some other species. 

Reeve figured Icevigata under the name of inornata, de- 
scribing it as striate in the text. 

Much confusion regarding the species of this group has 
existed also among American collectors, who have de- 
pended for the names of their shells on their friends rather 
than on descriptions. 

The species under consideration is at once distinguished 
from all the others of the group by the fact of its being 
the only one furnished with striee on the upper surface. 

It has also been found in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, 
Arkansas, North Carolina, and Florida. 

Pfeiffer mentions a large variety from Florida. Reeve's 
fig. 672 may perhaps represent it. 

For the views of Bland see the remarks on the follow- 
ing species. 

HELIX INORNATA SAY vol. ii. p. 227, pi. xxxiv. 

Helix inornata SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 24. 

Helix glaphyra ? PFEIFFER, Symb. ii. 29, (excl. H. fuliginosa) ; Mon. i. 57; nee. 
REEVE, BLAND. 

This species has been described and figured in America 
for many years, and is now well understood in American 
collections. During the last year it has been referred to 
l&vigata by Bland, (N. Y. Lye. vi. 352). In the remarks 
under cellaria his views will be given. 

Pfeiffer gives Say's description, not having seen any 
authentic specimen. The shell described by him as glaph- 



110 HELICEA. 

yra is evidently inornata. From his letters, it appears he 
will follow Binney's decision regarding inornata in the 
fourth volume of his Monograph. 

Reeve figures and describes inornata under the name of 
g*laphyra, misquoting Gould's opinion about the introduc- 
tion of quite another shell. His inornata is the true Icevi- 
gata. 

Lewis (Bost. Proc. vi. 3) catalogues inornata under 
the name of lucubrata. My opinion is formed from an 
inspection of his specimen. 

The species has also been found in the mountains of 
Virginia. 

An anonymous writer (Sill. Journ. 31, p. 36,) suggests 
that fuliginosa, glaphyra, and inornata are but different 
stages of growth of the same shell. 

HELIX SUBPLANA BINNEY vol. ii. p. 229, pi. xxxiii. 

Found also in Pennsylvania. Pfeiffer suggests its iden- 
tity with his glaphyra, (the true inornata). He had seen 
no specimen. 

HELIX SCTJLPTILIS BLAND. 
PLATE LXXVII. FIGURE 15. 

T. obtecte perforata, sub orbicular!, depressa, subpellucida, pallide cor- 
nea, nitenti, lineis transversis regularibus concinne impressa; spira parum 
elevata, subconvexa ; anfr. 7, planulatis, ultimo rapide accrescente, prope 
aperturam diam. subsequanti ; basi planulata, leviter excavata; sutura 
parum impressa ; apertura subobliqua, depressa, trans versa, lunari ; perist. 
simplici, acuto, sinuato, margine columellari rapide et anguste reflexa, et 
perforationem minutam tegenti. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Heilx scuJptilis BLAND, N. Y. Lye. vi. p. 279; Notes, 3, pi. ix. figs. 11-13. 

Shell scarcely perforate, suborbicular, depressed, subpellucid, 
pale horn-color above, of lighter shade beneath, shining, with regu- 
lar, subequidistant, impressed transverse lines, those on the last 



HELIX. Ill 

whorl extending over the periphery, and converging in the umbilical 
excavation ; spire very little elevated, scarcely convex ; whorls 7, 
planulate, the last rapidly increasing, equal at the aperture to ]- the 
diam. of the shell, beneath flattened, and little excavated in the 
umbilical region ; suture lightly impressed ; aperture scarcely ob- 
lique, depressed, transverse, lunate ; peristome simple, acute, sinu- 
ate, the columellar margin very rapidly and narrowly reflected over, 
and almost entirely covering the very small perforation. 

Diam. maj. 12J-, min. 11, alt. 5 mill. 

Habitat. " The Anantehely Mountains, which are a local spur 
of the Alleghany Mountains in North Carolina, just where that 
State touches Georgia and Tennessee." Bishop Elliott. 

A single specimen of this very interesting species was found in 
the locality above mentioned, by Bishop Elliott, in whose cabinet I 
noticed it some months ago. In sculpture it is closely allied to 
H. indentata Say, of which it might almost be termed a gigantic 
variety, but the impressed striae are more numerous, and closer 
together. The form of the aperture is very near that of H. inor- 
nata Binney. 

The general aspect of this shell reminds one of the Asiatic group, 
to which H. resplendens Phil, and H. vitrinoides Desh. belong. 

The above is Eland's description. 

HELIX CELLARIA MULLER vol. ii. p. 230, pi. xxix. fig. 4. 

Helix glaphyra SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 7, pi. 69, fig. 3. 

BLAND, N. Y. Lye. vi. p. 52; Notes, 52 nee PFEIFFER. 
Helix cellaria DEKAY, 1. c. (non cellaria.) 

Found in Salem, Lynn, Marblehead, Providence, Con- 
necticut, Portland. 

Pfeiffer describes inornata under this name. 

Helix glaphyra. There seems to me no doubt that Dr. 
Gould and my father are correct in considering this species 
to have been an accidentally introduced specimen of the 
European Helix cellaria Mull. See the Invert, of Mass. 
and Terrestrial Mollusks, as well as my Notes on Ameri- 
can Land Shells, No. 2, Proc. A. N. S. Phila. That this 



112 HELICEA. 

is one of those questions which it is quite impossible to 
settle to the satisfaction of all parties, is proved by the 
fact of my friend Mr. Thomas Bland having arrived at a 
different opinion from mine, though furnished with the 
same data. See Annals of N. Y. Lyceum of N. H. 1. c. 
My decision is based on the following reasoning. 

With the exception of the minute species, Mr. Say was 
acquainted with three shells only of this group, Helix 
lucubrata, inornata, and glaphyra. The first mentioned 
was found in a distinct zoological province ; consequently, 
the question lies between inornata, as determined by Dr. 
Binney, and the introduced cellaria. The figure given in 
Nicholson's Encyclopaedia, rough as it is, can more readily 
be referred to cellaria. The resemblance to that shell also 
seems to have struck Mr. Say himself, since he speaks of 
it in his remarks under its synonym H. nitens, as he could 
hardly do of the larger, less broadly umbilicated inornata 
Binn. The peculiarity of its being " whitish beneath," on 
which Mr. Say lays particular stress, is more constant in 
cellaria. The description would apply equally to both, 
with the exception of " umbilicus moderate, not exhibiting 
the volutions." As regards this phrase, I must say that it 
seems to contain a contradiction ; since any shell must 
show its volutions more or less in the umbilicus, if it is at 
all 'open. A minute perforation, as it is now called, would 
not show them ; but all Say's perforated species are desig- 
nated as having a " small" umbilicus. The term " mod- 
erate" is applied by Say to the umbilicus of H. tridentata 
in the same paper in which the description of glaphyra 
occurs, and subsequently he applies it to H. septemvolva 
alone. The only terms he uses for the umbilicus of his 
species is " small," " large" or " very large," and " moder- 
ate." After a very careful study of his descriptions, I am 
convinced he used the words " umbilicus moderate, not 
exhibiting the volutions," in a comparative sense, in con- 



HELIX. 113 

tradistinction to his usual term, " umbilicus large, exhibit- 
ing the volutions distinctly." Not only could Say have 
never applied the term " umbilicus moderate r to a per- 
forated shell like inornata Binn., but his remarks under 
H. ligera would never apply to it. He says that shell is 
distinguished from glaphyra by having a smaller umbili- 
cus, a condition fulfilled by inornata Binn., but evidently 
quite wanting in cellaria. The circumstance of the adop- 
tion of the name glaphyra by Western Conchologists can 
have but little weight, since they have not accompanied 
their lists with descriptions, and have not generally had 
access to Say's writings. Any one acquainted with the 
many singular errors abounding in the European treat- 
ment of American land shells, will not be surprised to find 
this species incorrectly determined abroad. Its synonymy 
now stands : 

Helix cellaria MULL, anno 1773, LAM. PFEIFFER, &c. 

BINNEY, Boston Journ. iii. 421, Nov. 1840; Terrestrial Mollusks, 

ii. 230, 1851; iii. pi. xxix. f. 4, 1857. 
GOULD, Invert, of Mass. 180, f. 104, 1841. 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. 37, pi. iii. f. 25. 1843. 
LINSLEY, Shells of Vt.; Silliman's J. 48, p. 280, 1845. 
STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. 55, 1851, absque descr. 
Helix glaphyra SAY, Nich. Enc. vol. iv. Am. ed. pi. i. f. 3, 1816-1819. 
FERUSSAC, Tab. Syst. 45, 1822, absque descr. 
non PFEIFFER, Symbolse, i. 60, 1841 ; ii. 80, 1843 ; non Mon. Hel. 

Viv. i. 57, 1848; iii. 63, 1853. 
non REEVE, Con. Icon, 
non DESK AYES, in Fer. pi. Ixxxiv. f. 9, 10, teste Pfr. 

Those persons who, like my friend Mr. Bland, do not 
assent to Dr. Binney's determination of H. glaphyra^ but 
refer to it inornata Binn., are forced to find some shell on 
which to place Say's name of inornata. Mr. Bland would 
refer it to Icevigata Pf. There is nothing in Say's descrip- 
tion of inornata which directly opposes this construction, 
though it would be strange for Mr. Say to overlook the 
great peculiarity of H. Icevigata, its striate upper surface 
and smooth base. But the habitat, Pennsylvania, which 

15 



114 HEL1CEA. 

he gives, would be incorrect of Icevig-ata, as far as our 
present knowledge of geographical distribution will allow 
me to judge. It would be strange indeed if the thorough 
researches of so many Conchologists have never proved 
Icevigata an inhabitant of that State, if it really exists 
there, while inornata Binn. is met with by every collector 
among the Alleghanies. Moreover, it must be remem- 
bered that it is utterly improbable, although within the 
bounds of possibility, that a shell confined strictly to damp 
retired localities in the woods, and found with great diffi- 
culty in its native localities, should have been transported 
fifty or one hundred miles, and picked up on a wharf in 
a city. Mr. Say speaks of its having been found by Mr. 
Ord in his garden in Philadelphia; but on making inqui- 
ries of that gentleman, I learn that a single empty shell 
was picked up by him on his wharf, far from any garden, 
but on the spot where he often found specimens of small 
foreign animals, accidentally imported in the Liverpool 
and London ships constantly disembarking their cargoes 
there. It is a well known fact that some European snails 
have been widely distributed by commerce. Limax varie- 
g-atus F. is but too common in gardens and cellars of 
Philadelphia and other maritime cities. Bulimus decollatus 
Lin. (B. mutilatus Say) and Helix aspersa Mull, are still 
common in Charleston, S. C. ; Helix hortensis Mull, has 
not yet lost its footing on the islands off the coast of the 
New England States ; and this same Helix cellaria has 
been introduced and is still existing plentifully in Boston, 
New Bedford (J. H. Thomson), Marblehead (J. P. Has- 
kell), Lynn (S. Tufts, Jr.), Halifax (Smithsonian Institute 
Coll.), Providence (J. G. Anthony, about 1830), Portland, 
Me. (E. S. Morse). It has never been found in the inte- 
rior. 

Every American author has coincided with my views of 
glaphyra and inornata; among them are Binney, Gould, 



HELIX. 115 

Adams, DeKay, Linsley, Stimpson. Some of the printed 
Western catalogues have quoted glaphyra^ but this has 
arisen from the authors, in ignorance of the foreign origin 
of Say's shell, endeavoring to fix the name on some Amer- 
ican shell. Abroad, Ferussac gives glaphyra by name 
alone in his Tableaux Systematiques, but had never seen 
the shell. In the continuation of the " Histoire," Deshayes 
considers glaphyra as the introduced cellaria, though 
Pfeiffer gives another name to the shell he figures. 

On the other hand, Pfeiffer, in his Symbolae, miscon- 
ceives glaphyra, and also in his Monographia, but in a let- 
ter to me he says he now considers the shell described in 
the last-mentioned work as a variety of inornata Say. 
Reeve in Con. Icon, doubts Gould's opinion that glaphyra 
is an introduced species ; he is right in considering his 
No. 667 a native American shell, because it is inornata, 
though wrong in applying Gould's opinion to it, as the 
shell is not mentioned in the Invertebrata. 

There is also additional evidence of tradition in favor 
of my views, in the fact of Mr. J. G. Anthony taking to 
Philadelphia, about the year 1830, a specimen of cellaria 
found in Providence, R,. I., and being told by the Conchol- 
ogists of the former city that it was glaphyra Say. Dr. 
Griffith, also, in letters to my father, now in my posses- 
sion, writes that the original specimen of glaphyra depos- 
ited by Say in the collection of the Academy was without 
doubt cellaria, and that it was subsequently broken and 
thrown aside. This fact destroys the value of a specimen 
of a young inornata labelled by Mr. Phillips as Say's origi- 
nal specimen of glaphyra ; moreover, Mr. Phillips tells me 
that he labelled that shell from conjecture. 

HELIX BULBINA DESHAYES. 

PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 10. 
T. orbiculato-discoidea, late umbilicata, tenuis, fragilis, corneo-flava, 



116 HELICEA. 

pellucida, tenuissime punctulata ; spira depressa; anfr. 51 planulati, ulti- 
mus ad peripheriam obtusissime subangulatus ; angulo candidulo ; aper- 
tura ovato-lunaris, obliqua, coarctata ; perist. candidum, tenue, reflexum. 
Diam. 12, alt. 6 mill. (Deshayes.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix bulbina DESHAYES, in Fer. i. p. 108, pi. Ixxxv. figs. 14-18. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 201. 

Remarks. This is Deshayes's description of a shell found 
by him in Ferussac's collection labelled profunda. It may 
be, perhaps, the young of that species. I have given a fac- 
simile of one of his outline figures. Pfeiffer repeats his 
description, not having seen the shell. 

The banks of the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri are 
given as the habitat. 

HELIX DEMISSA BINNEY vol. ii. p. 232, pi. xlii. fig. 1. 

Helix demissa REEVE, Con. Icon. 

HELIX LUCIDA DRAPARNAUD vol. ii. p. 233, pi. xxii. a, fig. 2. 

Found in Ohio. 

Having sent some of Dr. Ingalls' shells to Pfeiffer, he 
declares there is no perceptible difference between them 
and the lucida of Europe. 

HELIX ARBOREA SAY vol. ii. p. 235, pi. xxix. fig. 3. 

Helix arborea SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 5, pi. Ixxii. fig. 5. 
CHEMNITZ, ii. 114, (excl. Ottonis). 
PFEIFFER, iii. 88, (excl. ditto). 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 733 (1852), excl. syn. 

Mighels (Shells of Maine) declares he can see no differ- 
ence between this and lucida. 

Pfeiffer, 1. c., unites Ottonis to this species. He quotes 
arborea from Cuba, but Poey doubts its existence there. 

HELIX ELLIOTTI REDFIELD vol. iii. p. 23, pi. Ixxvii. fig. 18. 

The description is taken from the New York Lyceum 
Annals, vi. 170, pi. ix. fig. 10. 



HELIX. 117 

HELIX ELECTRINA GOULD vol. ii. p. 236, pi. xxix. fig. 1. 

Pfeiffer (Symb. ii. 10) considers this a variety of nitidosa, 
but subsequently refers it to pura, as does also Reeve. 
It has also been detected in Georgia and New York. 

HELIX OTTONIS PFEIFFER vol. ii. p. 238, pi. xxix. a, fig. 3. 

Also considered a synonym of arborea by Reeve, (No. 
733.) See the remarks under H. arborea. 

HELIX STEE1VSTRUPII MORCH. 

In Morch's catalogue of Greenland Mollusca (Rink's 
Greenland, p. 75) occurs the following mention of this 
species, which is the only information I can obtain in 
regard to it. (See also H. Fabricii.) 

Helicella Steenstrupii, N. s. 
Helicella sp. Stp. Conch, von Island. 
Helix nitida Fabr. F. Gr. No. 385. 
Helix alliaria Forbes, Br. Ass. 1839, 142. 

HELIX CAPSELLA GOULD vol. ii. p. 239, pi. xxix. a, fig. 1. 

Helix rotula PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 107. 
Helix placentula SHUTTLE WORTH, (Zonites) Bern. Mit. 1852, 194. 
GOULD, iu Terr. Moll. iii. 19. 

My opinion regarding the identity of placentula is 
founded on the description alone, not having seen any 
authentic specimen. 

HELIX VORTEX PFEIFFER... .vol. ii. p. 240, pi. xxix. a, fig. 2, vol. iii. p. 34. 

Helix vortex PFEIFFER, Ar. f. Mat. 1839, ii. 351; Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 95; iii. 88. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 110, pi. Ixxxviii. figs. 7-9. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 644, (1852). 

GOULD, vol. iii. 1. c. 
Helix selenina REEVE, 1. c. 716, (1852). 

I have seen no specimens from America of the larger 
variety of the species found in the West Indies. 



118 HELICEA. 

The species is found also in Haiti, St. Thomas, Porto 
Rico, Bermuda, and Cuba; and in Georgia, (Gould). 

I very much doubt the identity of tenuistriata with this 
species. (See remarks in the following article). 

HELIX TENUISTRIATA BINNEY. 

The following description I found among my father's 
papers. It is impossible to apply it to any known Ameri- 
can species. It will, however, probably be rediscovered at 
some future time. Its habitat, size, and all its character- 
istics, are opposed to the theory of its identity with the 
preceeding species, as suggested by Gould. 

H. testa depressa, carinata, umbilicata, albido-cornea ; anfractibus 
septem, oblique striatis ; apertura angusta, depressa ; labro sub-reflexo ; 
basi convexo ; umbilico aperto. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix tenuistriata BINNEY, Boston Journal, 1842, iv. i. cover, p. 3. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 432. 
Helix vortex GOULD, (non PFEIFFER,) Terr. Moll. iii. 34. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not hitherto noticed. 

Shell flattened, the upper surface acutely carinated ; epidermis 
light horn-color ; whorls seven, narrow, increasing in width very 
gradually from the apex to the aperture ; striated with fine, promi- 
nent, distinctly separated, curved lines ; aperture angular, depressed, 
contracted ; lip above the carina acute, below a little reflected ; 
base sub-convex, smooth ; umbilicus open, moderate in size, exhib- 
iting two or three volutions. 

Greatest transverse diameter about half an inch. 

Geographical Distribution. Found hitherto only in the eastern 
part of Tennessee, whence a single specimen was brought by Mr. 
Haldeman. 

Remarks. This pretty species is described with some reluctance 
from a single specimen, as it may be considered doubtful until 
another be found, whether it may not be a foreign shell introduced 
by mistake among Tennessean shells. It is quite flat on the upper 



HELIX. 119 

surface, rising a little towards the apex; the whorls, which are 
distinctly marked, are beautifully striated with delicate prominent 
curved lines, which are crowded towards the apex, and separated 
by a distinct interval on the outer whorl ; they terminate on the 
edge of the carina, which is a little plaited by them, the base below 
being smooth. The aperture is narrow, and marked by an angle at 
the carina. The lip below the carina has a distinct, though narrow 
reflection. The umbilicus is moderate, conical, and rather deep, 
exhibiting about three volutions. In Lamark's arrangement it 
would be a Carocolla. 

HELIX INDENT ATA SAY vol. ii. p. 242, pi. xxix. fig. 2. 

Helix indentala SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 24. 
CHEMNITZ, i. 221, (1846). 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 730, (1852). 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 65. 

Found also in Florida, Canada, and Texas, (Moore). 
For its supposed presence in St. Domingo, see Mai. Bl. 
5, 147. 

HELIX CHERSINA SAY vol. ii. p. 243, pi. xvii. fig. 4. 

Helix chersina SAY, (Binney's ed.) pp. 18, 31. 

Helix fulva teste MIGHELS, (Bost. Journ. iv. 333,) CHEMNITZ, PFEIFFER, 

REEVE, FORBES and HANLEY. 

I have separated the synonymy of H. egena Say, from 
that of chersina, since many authors consider them dis- 
tinct. The typical chersina is well represented in the 
plate. The original specimen of egena is readily distin- 
guished from it by having a short, pyramidal, acute spire, 
and a very rounded base, the separation of the two being 
very well defined. There exist, however, innumerable 
gradations between these extreme forms. It must be 
borne in mind, that the shell figured and described by 
Gould on p. 245, is not egena Say, but Gundlachi Pfr. 

I give Say's description below. 

II. EGENA. Shell convex, polished ; whorls five, not distinctly 
wrinkled, rounded ; aperture rather narrow, transverse ; labrum 



120 HELICEA. 

simple, at its inferior extremity terminating at the centre of the 
base of the shell ; umbilicus none, but the umbilical region deeply 
indented. 

Breadth more than one tenth of an inch. 

This shell was found by Mr. John S. Phillips on the banks of the 
Delaware River, about ten miles from Philadelphia. It is much 
more elevated and not so broad as H. arborea Nobis ; the aper- 
ture also is of a different shape. It is much broader than the 
If. chersina Nob. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix egena SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 30. 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 45. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 237, pi. xxx. figs. 19-21 ? (1846). 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 1263, (1854.) 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 31 ; iii. 32, non GOULD. 

HELIX FABRICII BECK. 
PLATE LXXVII. FIGURE 17. 

T. subimperforata, conica, tenuis, striatula, pellucida, fulva; spira coni- 
ca, acutiuscula ; sutura profunda; anfr. 6, convexi, angusti, ultimus latior, 
basi convexiusculus, rnedio impressus ; apertura verticalis, late lunaris; 
perist. simplex, acutum, margine columellari superne reflexiusculo, per- 
forationem simulante. (Pfeiffer.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix Fabricii BECK, Ind. p. 21, (absq. desc.) 

MOLLER, Ind. Moll. Grcenl. p. 4. 

PFEIFFER, Zeit. f. Mai. 1848, p. 90; Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 32. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. 1459, (1854). 

Helix nitida FABRICIUS, Fauna Gr. p. 389, teste PFR. et MOLL. 
Conulus Fabricii MOKCH, 1857, Nat. Bidr. af Gr. 75, (absq. desc.) 

Remarks. I have not seen this shell. The figure, which 
is enlarged, is a fac-simile of that given by Reeve from 
the Cumingian Collection. The description is Pfeiffer's. 
He also remarks that the shell is hardly distinguished from 
fulva Drap. by its more convex, subperforated base. It 
is a Greenland species. 

Fabricius thus describes H. nitida, which is quoted as a 
synonym : 



HKLIX. 121 

Helix nitida, testa umbilicata, subdepressa, fulvo-cornea, pellucida, 
substriata, apertura larga. 

Helix nitida Mull, prodr. 2898, Verm. 234. 

Helix Hammonis, Act. Nidr. iii. 435, tab. vi. fig. 16. 

Hujus testarn vacuam tantum sub muscis rarissime offendi. 

HELIX GUNDLACHI PFEIFFER vol. ii. p. 245, pi. xxii. a, fig. 3. 

Helix Gundlachi PFEIFFER, Wiegm. Arch. 1840, i. 250, Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 50; iii. 

51. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, i. 239. pi. xxx. figs. 25-28. 
Helix pusilla PFEIFFER, Ar. f. Nat. 1839, i. 351, nee LOWE. 
Helix egena GOULD, 1. c. nee SAY. 

This is not egena Say, as stated in the remarks under 
H. chersina. Having sent some of the specimens received 
from Gould to Pfeiffer, I have received from him an 
assurance of their being identical with his Gundlachi, a 
Cuban species. His description is as follows : 

T. subperforata, turbinato-depressa, nitida, fulva ; anfr. 5 convexius- 
culi, lente accreseentes, ultimus basi subplanulatus, sub lente lineis con- 
centricis sculptus, circa perforationem excavatus ; apertura depressa, 
lunaris ; perist. simplex, rectum, acutum. Diam. maj. 2^, inin. 2^, alt. 
If mill. 

Similis speciminibus junioribus H.fulvce. 

HELIX INTERN A SAY vol. ii. p. 247, pi. xxx. fig. 4. 

Helix internet SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 18. 
CHEMNITZ, i. 200. 
RETCVE, Con. Icon. No. 718, (1852). 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 142. 

HELIX GULARIS SAY. . . .vol. ii. p. 251, pi. xxxvii. figs. 3, 4. 

Helix gularis SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 18. 

CHEMNITZ, ii. 201, excl. var. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 141, excl. /3; Symb. ii. 29, excl. /5. 
MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 291, fig. 4, Ex Bost. Journ. 
ADAMS, ( Gastrodonta) Gen. Kec. Moll. pi. Ixxi. fig. 4. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 719, (1852). 

Helix bicostata PFEIFFER, 1. c. i. 182 ; iii. 141 ; Symb. iii. 69. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, ii. 196, pi. 100, figs. 21-23. 
REEVE, 1. c. 697 (1852). 

16 



122 HELICEA. 

Pfeiffer, 1. c., considers H. suppressa a variety of gularis. 
His bicostata is evidently the true gularis, with a less 
elevated spire. He acknowledges it to be so in letters 
lately received by me. 

See also remarks on ligera for H. Rafinesquea. 

HELIX SUPPRESSA SAY vol. ii. p. 253, pi. xxxvii. fig. 1. 

Helix t suppressa SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 36. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 38, pi. iii. fig. 24. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 723, (1852). 
Helix gularis, var. CHEMNITZ, 1. c. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. 

The typical specimen is still preserved in the Philadel- 
phia Academy. 

Pfeiffer considers it as a variety of gularis furnished 
with one tooth only. DeKay also mentions but one tooth. 

I have specimens from Alabama and Florida. It has 
been found by me only in fields at the roots of the grass, 
and not under decaying leaves and stumps as the other 
species. 

HELIX LASMODON PHILLIPS vol. ii. p. 254, pi. xxxvii. fig. 2. 

Helix lasmodon DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 47. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 142. 
Helix macilenta SHUTTLEWORTH, Bern. Mit. 1852, p. 195. 

GOULD, Terr. Moll. iii. 20. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 640. 

I have seen no authentic specimen of Shuttleworth's 
species, but am inclined from the description to place it 
in the synonymy of lasmodon. It had not been seen by 
Pfeiffer or Gould, who repeat the original description. 

HELIX PERSPECTIVA SAY.. vol. ii. p. 256, pi. xxx. fig. 1. 

Helix perspectiva SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 9. 

DESHAYES, 3d ed. Lam. iii 315, (1839); in Fer. Hist. i. 81. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 99, (excl. H.Jiliola). 

CHEMNITZ, ii. 114. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 695, (1852). 
Helix pattila DESHAYES, non parvnli. 



HELIX. 123 

Occurs fossil in the Natchez Postpleiocene bluff. 

The existence of the tooth within the aperture has been 
overlooked by all other authors but Binney. The position 
of the species in the artificial systems is materially altered 
by its presence. 

Pfeiffer quotes Ferussac's pi. 86, fig. 1, for this species, 
and places pi. 79, fig. 7, in the synonymy of H. striatella. 
The former is said by Deshayes to be filiola, a species 
from Tonga, while the latter was figured from a speci- 
men furnished by Say himself. 

Potiez and Michaud give Austria as the habitat of per- 
spectiva, having confounded it with solaria Menke (Gal. 
p. 99.) 

HELIX MULTIDENTATA BINNEY, vol. ii. p. 258, pi. xlviii. fig. 3. 

Helix multidentata CHEMNITZ, ii. 202. 
PFEIFFER, Hi. 142. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 729, (1852). 

Found also in Ohio (Anthony), and in Maine (Morse). 

Gould is erroneously quoted as authority for the spe- 
cific name by all the foreign writers referred to in the 
synonymy. 

HELIX LINE ATA SAY vol. ii. p. 261, pi. xlviii. fig. 1. 

Helix lineata SAY, (Binney's ed.) pp. 9, 24. 
CHEMNITZ, ii. 203. 
PFEIFFER, iii. 142. 
DESHAYES, in Fer. i. 80. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 724, (1852). 

Found also in Virginia, and in Washington Co., Texas, 
(Moore.) 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Helix arbustorum Lin. was found some years since in the neighbor- 
hood of Cincinnati ; it was living in a situation from which it 



124 HELICEA. 

could be traced to a nursery, the proprietor of which had import- 
ed many fruit-trees and bushes from France, and had probably 
brought over this stray species in the matting around their roots. 
(Anthony.) 

Helix Bonplandi Lamark, vid. vol. i. p. 159. 

Helix corpuloides Mont, is quoted from Boston, without description, 
among DeKay's extra limited species. On the page of Silliman's 
Journal, to which he refers, it is stated by Gould to be a spe- 
cies of " Delphinoidea" originally described as Helix, 

Helix harpa Say is a Bulimus. 

Helix dealbata Say is a Bulimus. 

Helix depicta, Grateloup, vid. vol. i. p. 159. 

Helix domestica, Strom, vid. Vitrina Angelica. 

Helix hieroglyphica Beck, Ind. p. 8. " Am. Sept.? " No descrip- 
tion is given. The species is unknown to PfeifFer. Vid. Mon. 
i. 434. 

Helix hispida Linnaeus, Canada ? 

Helix irrorata. Shell imperforate, depressed, subglobular, pale 
reddish-brown, with very numerous small white spots, and about 
four deeper brown obsolete bands ; whorls rounded, nearly five 
in number, wrinkles obsolete on the body whorl, more distinct 
on the spire ; spire depressed, convex ; suture declining much 
near the mouth ; aperture on the side of the labrum, within 
somewhat livid ; labrum reflected but not flattened, and not ab- 
ruptly contracting the aperture, white before and yellowish 
behind ; near the junction with the columella is a callus, which 
does not rise into an angle. 

Length from the apex to the base of the columella, three-fifths 
of an inch nearly. Greatest breadth one and one-tenth of an 
inch. Inhabits Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. Cab- 
inet of Mr. William Hyde. 

This species may be compared with the H. lactea Miiller and Fe- 
russac ; the spire is rather more prominent, the white spots, or 
rather abbreviated lines are similar in form, size, and number, but 
its labrum preserves the same color with the exterior of the shell, 
and the livid tint of the inner portion of the body whorl is very 



BULIMUS. 

pale ; the posterior face of the reflected labrum is immaculate, 
and its callus base is not angulated ; the aperture is much less 
wide than that of lactea ; and in Mr. Hyde's specimen, a small 
fissure remains near the umbilicus. It still more closely resem- 
bles a variety of a shell which inhabits the Island of Candia, but 
that species has always a white base, being immaculate beneath 
the inferior band. Say, (1. c.) 

It seems probable that Helix irrorata is a variety of H. lactea 
Miill., with which I compared it when describing it. Say, 
(Binney's ed.) p. 36. 

Helix irrarata SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 23. 

DEKAY, N, Y. Moll. 45, (var. of lactea). 

PFEIFFER, Mon. i. 272. 
Helix lactea MULLER, teste BINNEY, PFEIFFER, (iii.) REEVE, SAY. 

Helix nemoralis Lin. teste Gray, Turtons, Man. 27, (" Canada and 
United States.") 

Helix pellucida Fabricius. vid. Vitrina Angelica. 

Helix pisana Miill. quoted from U. S. by Ferussac, (Tabl. Syst.) 
and Gray (Turt. Man.) 

Helix subcylindrica Pulteney is a Truncatella. 

Helix Trumbulli Linsley. (Shells of Connecticut, p. 10 ; Sill. 
Journ. 48, p. 280). Spire much depressed or very little ele- 
vated ; sutures slightly marked and umbilicus large and deep; 
color a dull white with a tinge of green ; shell thin and trans- 
lucent ; diameter about -^^ inch, height ^V inch ; found on the 
shore of Long Island Sound near high-water-mark, and occa- 
sionally near low-water-mark at Stonington, by Mr. J. H. 
Trumbull. [May not this be Margarita arctica ? Eds.] 

" Helix Trumbulli is Skenca serpuloides." Gould, Silliman's 
Journ. n. s. vi. 235. 

Helix virgata Mont. " United States," Ferussac, Tabl. Syst. 

GENUS BULIMUS SCOPOLI. 

BULIMUS ZEBRA MULLER vol. ii. p. 271, pi. liv. ; pi. Ixxvii. fig. 13; 

pi. Ixxviii. fig. 12. 

For additional synonyms, &c. see Pfeiffer. 

On pi. 78, fig. 12, is a variety of this species from Key 



126 HELICEA. 

Biscayne, Florida. The variety described on page 273 is 
figured on pi. 77, fig. 13. 

Agatina fuscata Rafinesque (vol. i. p. 50) is to be added 
to the synonymy. 

BULIMUS SERPERASTRUS SAY vol. ii. p. 274, pi. 1. fig. 2. 

Bulimus serperastrus SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 39. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 82, pi. xxx. fig. 122; pi. xxxix. fig. 5, 

(1854). 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 341. 
PHILIPPI, Icon. iii. 23, p. 97, tab. 9, fig. 6. 
/3 Gracilior, spira elongata. 

Bulimus Liebmanni PFEIFFER. 
Bulimus Ziebmanni REEVE. 
y. Minor, imperfectus. 

Bulimus nitelinus REEVE. 

The above varieties are given solely on the authority of 
PfeifTer. 

The geographical distribution of the species doubtfully 
quoted by Gould as synonyms seem to remove the proba- 
bility of their identity with this shell. 

BULIMUS ALTERNATUS SAY vol. ii. p. 276, pi. li. fig. 2; pi. li. a; 

pi. Ixxx. fig. 3; fig. 1? 
Bulimus alternatus SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 39. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 221. 
Bulimus lactarius PFEIFFER, 1. c. ii. 187; iii. 415. 

REEVE, 1. c. No. 217. 

GOULD, Ter. Moll. iii. p. 35. 
Bulimus dealbalus BINNEY, 1. c. pars, nee Say. 

There exists a great deal of confusion in regard to this 
and the allied species. 

Bulimus alternatus is thus described by Say : 

BULIMUS ALTERNATUS. Ovate conic, with alternate gray and 
brownish longitudinal vittse. Inhabits Mexico. 

Shell umbilicated, ovate-conic, with longitudinal lines, subequal, 
gray and light brownish vitta3 ; the brown is paler, almost approach- 
ing in some instances a drab ; the white vittae consists of more or 



BULIMUS. 1 27 

less confluent, transverse, irregular lines, and small spots ; whorls 
about six, a little convex ; suture not profoundly impressed ; labrum 
(in some specimens) with a thickened line or rib on the inner sub- 
margin ; within white, with a perlaceous tinge. 

Length one and one fifth of an inch. Greatest breadth seven 
tenths. This species appears to be not uncommon in Mexico, as 
many specimens were sent me by Mr. Maclure ; but from what 
particular locality, I know not. 

An original drawing of this species by Mrs. Say, under 
which is written, in the hand of her husband, " Bulimus 
alternatus Mexico^ Wm. Maclure" is copied on plate 80, 
fig. 3. This figure, in connection with the description, re- 
moves all doubt as to what shell Say had before him as 
alternatus. 

It is, however, an extremely variable shell, being found 
on the same bush in large quantities, among which is 
every variety of marking. Some specimens exist without 
hardly any white in their coloring, as in the case of the 
specimen from Buena Vista figured (pi. 80, fig. 1), while 
some are but slightly varied with the brown vittae. 

B. alternatus occurs in large quantities in Texas and 
the neighboring Mexican State of Tamaulipas. Adams 
also quotes it from Louisiana, on the authority of one 
dead specimen found in Otter Creek, (Nat. Hist. Red Riv. 
La. p. 254). 

Forbes, in the description of land-shells collected by the 
Herald and Pandora, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 54, speaks of " Bui. 
alternatus" being found at Panama. He gives no author- 
ity for the name ; Pfeiffer describes no other alternatus 
than Say's. 

Binney was familiar with B. alternatus^ as he figured it 
on pi. li. a, and a variety of it on pi. li. fig. 2. He con- 
sidered it, however, a variety of B dealbatus. 

Pfeiffer alone, of foreign writers, notices B. alternatus^ 
by repeating Say's description as of a species unknown to 



128 HELICEA. 

him. It appears that he had the true alternatus before 
him in describing B. lactarius as follows : 

T. rimata, vel perforata, ovato-acuta, palidissime fulvida, strigis lacteis, 
opacis, longitunalibus, denticulatis et fimbriatis ornata ; spira conica, 
acuta ; anfr. 7 convexiusculi, ultimus spiram subaaquans ; apertura ovalis ; 
perist. simplex, acutum, marginibus callo junctis, columellari dilatato, re- 
flexo. (Pfr. in Symb. iii. 85.) 

Reeve also describes and figures the species as B. lacta- 
rius. 

BULIMUS MARINE ALBERS. 

T. anguste umbilicata, oblongo-conica, solida, sublsevigata, alba, punctis 
et strigis obsoletis corneis plerumque notata ; spira conica, acuta ; anfr. 
6^ convexiusculi, ultimus spiram subaequans, basi vix attenuatus; colu- 
mella plica parvula, dentifbrini munita ; apertura vix obliqua, acuminato- 
oblonga, intus fusca ; perist. rectum, margine dextro leviter arcuato, 
columellari sursum dilatato, patente. Long. 33, diam. 14-15 mill. ; ap. 
16-1 7 mill, longa, 7 lata. 

/?. Anfr. superis corneis, lacteo punctato-strigatis, ultimo strigis lacteis 
denticulatis et violaceo-corneis alternantibus picto. 

Hab. Texas. 

This description was published by Pfeiffer in Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1858, p. 23. The species must be nearly 
allied, if not identical, with some of the varieties of B. al- 
ternatus, but I have not seen any authentic specimen. 

BULIMUS BINNEYANUS PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LI. b. 

The shells figured on the plate referred to were con- 
sidered as a variety of dealbatus by Binney (ii. 277), and 
as B. Schiedeanus by Gould (ii. 279). Having sent speci- 
mens to Pfeiffer for identification, they were returned to 
me labelled B. Binneyanu*, with the remark that the true 
B. Schiedeanus has no tooth-like plate on the columellar. 

The shell described by Pfeiffer (Mai. Blatt. iv. 229) does 
not appear to be identical with our Texan shell. We 



BULIMUS. 129 

must therefore leave the species temporarily under this 
name, until its position is more accurately ascertained. 

BULIMUS SCHIEDEANUS PFEIFFER. 

PLATE LXXX. FIGURES 8, 15. 

T. perforata, ovato-acuta, calcarea, alba, longitudinaliter et irregulariter 
rugoso-striata ; anfr. 6^ convexiusculi, ultimus spiram aequans; apertura 
ovali-oblonga, intus fulvida ; columella obsolete plicata ; perist. simplex, 
acutum, marginibus callo nitido junctis, columellari late reflexo, nitido, 
albo. Long. 31, diam. 17 mill. Ap. 17 mill, longa, 9 lata. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

B. Schiedeanus PFEIFFER, Symb. ad Hel. Hist. i. 43 ; Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 187 ; iii. 

418. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, No. 216, pi. xlvi. figs. 3, 4, (1854). 
PHILIPPI, Icon. i. 3, p. 56, pi. 1, fig. 12. 
REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 361 

Geographical Distribution. Texas and Mexico. 

Remarks. This species is readily distinguished from 
that figured on pi. 51, b, (see last article,) by its rougher 
surface and the want of the tooth-like fold on the colu- 
mellar. 

Pfeiffer mentions a smaller variety. I have figured two 
others. One (pi. 80, fig. 15) has a very dark-colored aper- 
ture. The other (pi. 88, fig. 8) is distinguished by a 
smoother surface, a black apex, a light coffee-color below 
an obtuse carina situated about the middle of the body 
whorl, the remainder of the shell being quite white. It 
was found in Washington and De Witt Counties, Texas, 
(Moore). The other forms were not found with it. It 
occurred in large numbers, living, and constant in its char- 
acters through every stage of growth. Should it prove a 
distinct species, I would suggest its bearing the name of 
the discoverer. 

BULIMUS PATRIARCHA. 

PLATE LXXX. FIGURE 13. 

T. perforata, ovato, solidissima, alba, rugosa ; anfr. 6 convexi, ultimus 

17 



130 I1EL1CEA. 

ventricosus, 5-7 long, testas aequans ; apertura ovata ; perist. simplex, 
intus incrassatum, marginibus callo albo, crasso, junctis, columellari re- 
flexo, umbilicum subtegente. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

I 

Bulimus patriarcha W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sc. 1858, 116; Notes, 

p. 17. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell perforate, ovate, heavy, white, and wrinkled ; 
whorls 6, convex, the last ventricose, equalling in length 
5-7 of the shell ; aperture ovate ; peristome simple, thick- 
ened within, the extremities joined by a heavy white 
callus, the columellar extremity slightly reflected, so as 
partially to conceal the umbilicus. 

Length 35, diam. 19 ; aperture, length 19, diarn. 12 mill- 
imetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Texas and Mexico, at Buena 
Vista, (Berlandiere). 

Remarks. Belongs to the same group as Bui. dealbatus 
Say, alternatus Say, liqualis Reeve, Schiedeanus Pf., &c. 
The characteristics which form its specific differences are 
alike present in young and old specimens, and constant 
in all from the locality. I therefore consider it as well 
entitled to specific distinction as those named. 

Named from its greater size and more antiquated ap- 
pearance, as compared with the allied species. 

BULIMUS DEALBATUS SAY . . vol. ii. p. 276, pi. li. fig. 1 ; pi. Ixxx. figs. 6, 7. 

Helix dealbata SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 20. 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 46. 
Bulimus dealbatus CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 55. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 418. 
Bulimus coiifinis REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 643, (1850). 

PFEIFFER, 1, c. iii. 341. 
Bulimus liquabilis REEVE, 1. c. 387. 

On plate 51, fig. 1, will be found a correct representa- 



BU LIMITS. 131 

tion of what appears to me the type of Bui. dealbatus. 
The species varies considerably, but never sufficiently to 
authorize the quotation of alternatus, Binneyanus, Schiede- 
anus, and patriarcha as synonyms. 

It is found in large quantities in Texas, Alabama, North 
Carolina, Missouri, and Arkansas. Future researches will 
probably prove it an inhabitant of the neighboring South- 
western States. It also occurs fossil in the Postpleiocene. 

Say's description is as follows : 

H. DEALBA.TA. Shell conical, oblong, thin and fragile, some- 
what ventricose ; volution 6-7, wrinkled across, wrinkles more 
profound and acute on the spire ; spire elevated, longer than the 
aperture, sub-acute ; aperture longer than wide, labrum not reflect- 
ed ; umbilicus small and profound. 

Length more than three-fourths of an inch, breadth nine-twen- 
tieths of an inch. In the Cabinet of the Academy and Philadel- 
phia Museum. Inhabits Missouri and Alabama. 

In outline it resembles a Bulimus. Four specimens of this 
species were sent to the Academy from Alabama, by Mr. Samuel 
Hazard; and a single depauperated specimen was found by myself 
on the banks of the Missouri. 

Bulimus physoides Reeve (No. 507) corresponds exactly 
to a variety of dealbatus sent from Alabama by Dr. Show- 
alter. It is quoted by PfeifFer (iii. 418) as a synonym of 
B. melo Quoy. 

Pfeiffer quotes B. Liquabilis Reeve as a variety of B. 
confinis Reeve. I am inclined to consider them both as 
varieties of dealbatus but subjoin Reeve's descriptions, 
having copied his figures respectively on pi. 88, figs. 6 
and 7. 

BULIMUS CONFINIS. Bui testa ovata, subventricosti, profunde umbil- 
icata, anfr. 6, rotundatis, tenue striatis, columella late dilatata, subreflexa, 
apertura orbiculari, labro simplici ; pellucidocornea, opafo-albido varie- 
gata. Hab. Texas. 

BULIMUS LIQUABILIS. Bui. testa ovato-coniea, ventricosa, umbili- 



132 HELICEA. 

cata, anfr. 6 ad 7, subrotundatis, laevibus vel minute striatis, columella 
late reflexa, labro tenui, paululura expanse; pellucido-cornea, strigis 
longitudinalibus opacis notata. Hab. Texas. 

BULIMUS MUI/TILINEATUS SAY vol. ii. p. 278, pi. Iviii. 

Bulimus multilineatus SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 28. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. 56. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 204; iii. 422. 
Bulimus virgulatus BINNEY, 1. c. nee FEKUSSAC. 

There can, I think, be no reasonable doubt of the iden- 
tity of the species figured on pi. 58 with Say's species. 
The shells figured were found by Bartlett on the Florida 
Keys. Similar specimens have lately been sent to the 
Smithsonian Institute from Lower Matacumba Key. 

As regards B. venosus, Reeve's figure agrees exactly 
with the Florida shell, but he gives as its habitat the 
banks of the Orinoco. At all events, Say's name has 
many years of priority. Reeve quotes Grunei as a syno- 
nym of venosus. 

Pfeiffer repeats Say's description, having seen no au- 
thentic specimen. 

Bui. virgulatus Fer. is quite another shell. 

Say's description is given below. 

BULIMUS MULTILINEATUS. Shell conic, not very obviously wrinkled ; 
whorls not very convex, yellowish white, with transverse entire reddish- 
brown lines ; a blackish subsutural revolving line ; suture not deeply 
indented, lineolar ; apex blackish ; umbilicus small, surrounded by a 
broad blackish line ; columella whitish ; labrum simple, blackish. 

Length less than seven-tenths of an inch. Greatest breadth less than 
seven-twentieths of an inch. This species was found by Mr. Titian Peale 
on the southern part of East Florida. 

It is quite distinct from BuL Dormant, but appears 
somewhat related to BuL Floridianus. 

BULIMUS DORMANI. 

PLATE LXXX. FIGURE 10. 
Testa perforata, ovato-turrita, laevigata, albida, fasciis fuscis longitudi- 



BULIMUS. 13? 



nalibus ornata ; sutura impressa ; spira elongato-conica, acuta ; apex 
punctulata ; anfr. 6 convexiusculis, lineis minutissimis volventibus ornati, 
superi striati, ultimas inflatus, ad marginem superam peristomatis obtu- 
sissime carinatus ; apertura ovata, partem testaa dimidiam subsequans ; 
perist. simplex, acutum, margine columellari reflexiusculum, perfora- 
tionem pene occultans. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Bulimus Dormant W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sc. 1857, p. 188; Note?, 
p. 8. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell perforated, rather heavy, shining, elongated-conic ; 
white, with several regular revolving series of interrupted, 
perpendicular, reddish-brown patches ; suture distinctly 
marked ; apex punctured ; whorls 6, rather convex, marked 
with numerous very fine revolving lines; upper whorls 
striate ; last whorl full, with a hardly perceptible obtuse 
carina at the upper extremity of the peristome. 

Length, 29 ; diameter, 12 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found at several spots in 
the vicinity of St. Augustine, Fla., by O. S. Dorman, 
Esq. 

Remarks. The only described species with which this 
shell can be confounded is B. Floridianus Pfr., Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1855, p. 330. Though I have never seen 
Dr. PfeifTer's shell, I should consider it nearly allied, though 
distinct. That species wants the minute revolving lines, 
the punctured apex, and striate upper whorls, which char- 
acterize B. Dormant, is a smaller shell, and has a different 
marking, being furnished with opaque whitish blotches as 
well as reddish patches ; the latter also do not extend to 
the body whorl. 

Since writing the above, I have received a drawing of 
the type of B. Floridianus which removes all doubt of its 
being identical with this species. 



134 HELICEA. 



BULIMUS FLORIDIANUS PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXIX. FTGURE 3. 

T. anguste perforata, ovato turrita, sublaevigata, griseo-hyalina, strigis 
et maeulis opacis, albis notata ; spira elongato-conica, acutiuscula ; anfr. 
6^ convexiusculis, superis interrupte fusco-fasciatis, ultimo -f- longitudinis 
subaequante, infra medium subangulato, basi attenuate ; columella subtorta, 
recedente ; apertura parum obliqua, ovali ; perist. tenui, margine dextro 
anguste expanse, columellari dilatato, reflexo, fere adnato. 

Long. 15|, diam, 7^ mill. 

Habitat, Florida. (Pfr.) 

The above is the original description of this species, 
(Proc. Zool. Soc. July, 1856, p. 330). I have not seen 
any specimen of it, but am able to add a figure drawn by 
Sowerby from the type in the Cumingian collection. 

It appears nearest allied to B. multiline atus. 

BULIMUS DECOLLATUS LINNAEUS vol. ii. p. 280, pi. 1. fig. 1. 

Bulimus mutilatus SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 25. 
DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 56. 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. 397. 

In 1857 I received a large quantity of this species alive 
from Prof. Holmes of Charleston, S. C. From him I 
learn that the species is still but too common in that city. 
I placed a large quantity of them in my garden in Bur- 
lington, but they did not survive the succeeding winter. 

Reeve gives no habitat, and no authority for the specific 
name. 

It has also been introduced into Cuba, (Poey, Pfeiffer). 

The animal is carnivorous. 

BULIMUS SUBULA PFEIFFER vol. ii. p. 285, pi. liii. fig. 4. 

Bulimus subula PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 399. 

Bulimus hortensis ADAMS, vid. PFEIFFER, Mai. Blatt. i. 196; also vid. Contr. to 
Conch, p. 221. 

BULIMUS GRACILLIMUS PFEIFFER vol. ii. p. 293, pi. liii. fig. 3. 

Bulimus gracillimus PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 394. 



BUL1MUS. 135 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 594, (1849). 
Achatina gracillima BLXNEY, 1. c. 

I have removed this species to the genus in which Pfeif- 
fer places it. 

BULIMUS GOSSEI PFEIFFER. 

T. rimata, turrito-cylindracea, oblique eostulata, albida, opaca, strigis 
semilunaribus, punctisque pellucidis corneis ornata ; spira cylindraeea 
apice attenuata, acuta ; sutura crenulata ; anfr. 11 convexi, ultimus | 
longitudinis vix superans, rotundatus, basi subangulatus ; apertura sub- 
circularis; perist. breviter expansum, marginibus approximatis, columel- 
lari reflexo, patente. Long. 11, diam. 3| mill. Ap. 3^ mill, longa, 3^ 
lata. 

Var. /3, Paulo minor, strigis et punctis corneis obsoletioribus, (Pfr. 
Mon. Hel. Viv. i. 81, &c. &c.) 

Pfeiffer gives Texas as the habitat of var. |3 of this 
species in his Monograph, and also on p. 456 of Roemer's 
Texas it is quoted from New Brauenfels. The typical 
specimen is from Jamaica. 

Poey (Mem. i. 395) considers Macrocerramus pontificus 
a synonym of BuL Gossei ; the same species is referred by 
Pfeiffer to BuL Kieneri. 

I have seen no Texan specimen of the species, and have 
no means of clearing the confusion which appears to exist 
concerning it. Reeve's figure of Kieneri resembles Macr. 
pontificus nearer than his figure of Gossei. 

BULOIUS HARPA SAY vol. ii. p. 290, pi. lii. fig. 3. 

Helix harpa SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 29, pi. Ixxiv. fig. 1. 
Bulimus harpa PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 384. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, No. 305, pi. Ix. figs. 17-19. 

REEVE, Con. Icon. No. 596, (1849). 

Found at various points in Maine, and at Berlin Falls, 
N. H., by E. S. Morse, Esq., who gives the following de- 
scription of the animal : 

Animal small compared to the size of the shell. Body and head 



13(3 HELICEA. 



slate-color, superior tentacles darker, short, thick, bulbous ; eyes 
large, distinct ; foot two-thirds of the length of shell ; whitish, long, 
very narrow, rounded at tail ; body narrower than foot. 

In motion they are exceedingly graceful, at times poising their 
beautiful shell high above their body, and twirling it round not 
unlike the Physa, again hugging their pretty harp close to the 
back ; the shell when in this last position continually oscillates as if 
the animal could not balance it. It rarely ever moves in a straight 
line, but is always turning and whisking about, and this is done at 
times very quickly and abruptly. 

Mighel's description of Pupa costulata is as follows : 

Shell ovate-conic, scalariform, light yellowish-brown, thin and fragile, 
whorls four, convex, the last two prominently ribbed, the first two smooth ; 
suture distinct; aperture semicircular, slightly oblique, unarmed; lip 
simple or modified by the last rib ; umbilicus distinct. Length, y\ inch ; 
breadth, nearly T \y. Hab. Portland. 

BULIMUS MARGINATUS SAY vol. ii. p. 288, pi. lii. fig. 1. 

Cydostoma marginata SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 22. 
Bulimus maryinatus PFEIFFER, Malac. Blatt. ii. 94. 
Bulimus fallax GOULD, in Terr. Moll. 1. c. 

STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. p. 84, (absq. desc.) 
Pupa fallax SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 28. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 533. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. Nov. (1844,) p. 58, pi. 12, figs. 20, 21. 
Pupa Parraiana ORBIGNY, Moll. Cuba, p. 181, pi. xii. figs. 9-11, (1853). 

I have retained the first specific name given by Say, at 
the suggestion of Pfeifter, (Malak. Blatt. 1856, ii. p. 13, in 
the review of Terr. Moll.), who justly observes that if the 
species is referred to Bulimus, no name has the priority 
over it, as B. marginatus Pf. is now considered a synonym 
of B. Guillianij Petit. 

As for the name albilabris, it was suggested by Adams 
only because marginatus was preoccupied. 

Gould (Invert. 192) considers Pupa placida Say as a 
synonym of this species; and Pfeiffer (ii. 309) makes it 
var. ft of marginatus. 



MACROCERAMUS. 137 

SPURIOUS, EXTRALIMITAL, &C. 

Bulimus acicula Miiller, and Bulimus octona Brug. have been 
found in greenhouses and gardens, where they have been intro- 
duced on plants. 

B. exiguus Binn. is the same as Carychium exiguum. 

B.fasciatus Binn. is the same as Achatina fasciata. 

B. Gossei Pf., vid. Macroceramus pontificus. 

B. Kieneri Pf, vid. Macroceramus pontificus. 

B. lubricus Ad. &c. is the same as Achatina lubrica. 

B. obscurus Dr., vid. Pupa placida Say. 

B. striatus Brug. is the same as Glandina truncata. 

B. vexillum Brug. is the same as Achatina fasciata. 

B. zebra Orb. is the same as Achatina fasciata. 

B. vermetus Anthony. Of this species 1 can give no information 
other than that furnished by the original description given 
below. 

BULIMUS VERMETUS ANTHONY. (Cover of Haldeman's Monograph 
No. 3, July, 1841.) Shell turriculated, livid brown; whorls 5, striated 
longitudinally ; suture deeply indented ; apex entire ; body whorl a 
little more than equal to the spire ; spire 2^ times the length of the 
aperture; lengths, width 1^ lines; aperture obliquely ovate ; length 
of the aperture equal to the width of the body whorl. Ohio, near 
Cincinnati. 

Distinguished by its peculiar mouth, which is curved in a regular 
curve from right to left, contracted at the upper angle, and spreading 
below ; the whorls are also very deeply indented, and twisted as they 
are in Succinea vermeta. 

GENUS MACROCERAMUS GUILDING. 

This genus is not accepted by Pfeiffer, who places its 
species under Bulimus. 

MACROCERAMUS PONTIFICUS GOULD. . .vol. ii. p. 306, pi. Ixix. fig. 1. 

Pfeiffer refers this species to his Bulimus Kieneri, (Mon. 
iii. 365,) while Poey quotes it from Cuba, (Mem. i. 395,) 
as a synonym of Bulimus Gossei Pfr. 

18 



138 HBLlCEA. 



GENUS ACHATINA LAMARCK. 

ACHATINA FASCIATA MULLER vol. ii. p. 266, pi. Iv. Ivi. Ivii. 

Achatina sollda SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 29. 

DE!VAY, N. Y. Moll. 56. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 246< 
Achatina fasdata PFEIFFER, 1. c< iii. 479. 
Agatina variegata RAFINESQUE, vid. vol. i. 50. 
Bulimus fasciatus BINNEY, 1. c. 

Say's original specimen of Achatina solida is still pre- 
served in the Philadelphia Academy. 

This is not vexillum DeKay, which see. 

The lower figure of pi. 56, is Achatina picta, considered 
distinct by Reeve and PfeifTer, (vid. Mon. iii. 490.) Other 
West Indian varieties than those figured are from time to 
time received from Florida. 



ACHATINA LUBRICA MULLER , . vol. ii. p. 283, pi. Iii. fig. 4. 

Bulimus tubricus SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 31. 

DE!VAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 55. pi. iii. fig. 43. 
Bulimus Ittbricoides STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. p. 54, (absq. descr.) 

Stimpson, as will be seen by the synonymy, considers 
this distinct from the European shell. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES* 

Achatina virginea is quoted from Florida by Jay, (Cat. 1835). It 
is also given by DeKay under the name of Bulimus vexillum., 
(N. Y. Moll. 56, pi. iv. fig. 56). 

A. bullata Pf. is the same as Glandina bullata. 

A. flammigera, Fer. pi. 118, f. 5-7, quoted by DeKay, p. 56, as 
inhabiting Florida, is not a native of the United States, and 
could not have come from there. He probably gives the species 
on the authority of Say, who mentions (Binn. ed. 29) finding 
it there. 

A. flammigera Say is the same as Bulimus zebra. 

A. gracillima Pf. is the same as Bulimus gracillmus. 

A. pellucida Pf. olim, Binn. is the same as Blauneria pellucida. 



GLANDINA. 139 

A. rosea Desh. is the same as Glandina truncata. 

A. striata DeK. &c. is the same as Gl. truncata? He refers to 
Fer. pi. 136, figs. 8-10, which is A. rosea, and not an inhabitant 
of Florida, from whence DeKay quotes his species. 

A. subida Pf. is the same as Bulimus subula. 

A. Texasiana Pf. is the same as Glandina Texasiana. 

A. truncata Pf. &c. is the same as Glandina truncata. 

A. Vanuxemensis Pf. &c., is the same as Glandina Vanuxemensis. 

GENUS GLANDINA SCHUMACHER. 

GLANDINA BULLATA GOULD vol. ii. p. 298, pi. Ixii. a. 

Achatina bullata PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 512. 

Okadna bullata GRAY and PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Cat. Pulm. 24. 

GLANDINA CORNEOLA. 

PLATE LXI. FIGURE 1. 

Testa conico-oblonga, tenuis, nitens, cornea; aufr. 7 ad 8, con-vexi, 
tenuissime et lon<ntudinaliter striati, et lineis minutis creberrimis volven- 

C 1 

tibus notati ; sutura crenulata ; apertura oblonga, partem testas dimidiain 
aequans ; coluniella contorta, truncata, callo induta. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Glandina truncata var. BINNEY, vol. ii. p. 302. 

Glandina corneola W. G. BINNEY, Proc. Phila. Acad. 1857, p. 189; Notes, p. 9. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell oblong-conic, thin, shining, horn-color ; whorls 7 
to 8, longitudinally striate, and covered with numerous 
minute revolving lines ; suture slightly crenulated ; aper- 
ture oblong, half as long as the shell ; columella curved } 
truncated, covered with light callus.. 

Length, 50 ; diameter, 18 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Western Texas (Redfield), 
Mexico (Smithsonian Collection). 

Remarks. This shell, very rare in collections, is distin- 
guished by its light horn-color, thin shell, and revolving 



140 HELICEA. 

lines. It is the most distinctly marked species of the 
genus found in America. 

GLANDINA PARALLELA. 

PLATE LXII. FIGURE 2. 

Testa solida, albida, nitens, cylindraceo-elongata, striis creberrimis 
longitudinalibus notata ; spira elevato-obtusa ; anfr. 5 ad 6, super! con- 
vexi, ultimus lateribus rectis, aequis intervallis inter se distantibus, aper- 
tura angusta, partem tested 3-7 sequans ; labrum flexuosum, in rnedio 
rectum, margine basali curvatum ; columella recta, truncata, callo induta. 

SYNONYMS AND KEFERENCES. 

Glandina truncata var. BINNEY, 1. c. 

Glandina parallela W. G. BINNEY, Phila. Proc. 1857, p. 189; Notes, p. 9. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

She/I heavy, shining, white, elongated, cylindrical ; spire 
elevated, obtuse ; whorls 6 to 7, with numerous, delicate, 
longitudinal striaB, the upper ones convex, the last one 
with straight parallel sides; lip straight along the middle, 
and parallel to the rectilinear side of the opposite whorl, 
at the basal extremity curved ; columella straight, trun- 
cated, covered with a heavy callus. 
Length, 56 ; breadth, 20 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Louisiana (Rev. E. R. 
Beadle). 

Remarks. Distinguished by its peculiar parallel sides 
and heavy texture from any other described species. 

GLANDINA TEXASIANA PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXt. FIGURE 2. 

T. oblonga, solidula, longitudinaliter confertim striata, nitida, pellucida, 
carnea ; spira convexo-conica, obtusa ; sutura pallida, minute dentictilata ; 
anfr. 6 convexiusculi, ultimus spira paulo longiof , basi parum attenuatus ; 
columella perarcuata, basi laminam albam, tortam, abrupte truncatam 



GLANDINA. 141 

formans ; apertura vix obliqua, acuminato-ovalis ; perist. simplex, ob- 
tusum. Long. 29 ; diam. 10 mill. Ap. mill. 16 longa, 5^ lata. 
Habitat Texas. (Pf.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Glandina truncnta var. BINNEY, 1. c. 

Achatina Texasiana PFEIFFER, Xovit. Conch. 8, p. 82, pi. xxii. figs. 11, 12, 

(1857); Proc. Zool. Soc. 1856. 

Remarks. This well characterized species was consid- 
ered as a variety of Glandina truncata by Binney. It 
appears to be a common species. A variety is figured by 
me on pi. 77, fig. 21. 

GLANDINA TRUNCATA GMELIN. . . .vol. ii. p. 301, pi. lix. Ix. Ixxx, fig. 9. 

Achatina striata CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, tab. 3, figs. 3, 4. 

Achatina truncata CHEMNITZ, 1. c. Bui. tab. xxxviii. figs. 21, 22; Achatina, 

No. 78. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. (nee Glandina,) iii. 512. 
Glandina truncata SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 34, pi. xx. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. 56. 

MRS. GRAY, Fig. Moll. An. pi. 301, fig. 5. (Ex Bost. Journ.) 

BINNEY, 1. c. excl. var. et pi. Ixi. Ixii. 

Oleacina truncata GRAY and PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Pulmonata, p. 23. 
Planorbis glans DEKAY, 1. c. p. 56. 

One of the most singular varieties of this variable 
species is figured on pi. 80. It came from Florida. 

The varieties figured by Binney have been described as 
distinct species in the preceding articles. 

Orbigny gives Cuba as its habitat, but Pfeiffer and 
Poey doubt its existence there. 

For anatomy vid. Wyman in Boston Proc. i. 154. 

GLANDINA VANUXEMENSIS LEA vol. ii. p. 299, pi. Ixii. fig. 1. 

Achatina Vanuxemensis PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 518. 

Oleacina Vanuxemensis GRAY and PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Cat. Pulra. p. 36. 

GENUS PUPA DRAPANAUD. 

PUPA INCANA BINNEY vol. ii. p. 316, pi. Ixviii.; pi. Ixxix. fig. 17. 

Pupa incana PFEIFFER, Mai. Blatt. ii. p. 13. 



142 HELICEA. 

Pupa detrita SHUTTLEWORTH, Bern. Mitth. 

PFEIFFER, Malak. Bl. i. 158, (1853) ; i. 205, (1854,) pi. iii. figs. 9, 10. 
Pupa maritima GOULD, 1. c. 

y PFEIFFER, Mon. iii. 539. 

In 1851, this species was only designated by name in 
vol. i. ; the full description was given in vol. ii., the name 
being changed by Gould to P. maritima. Shuttleworth's 
description of detrita has not priority over the name I 
have retained. In the third volume of the Monograph, 
Pfeiffer considers it a variety of maritima, but later, hav- 
ing received from me some specimens, he remarks on 
them that they are similar to the Cuba detrita, but must 
take the name of incana. He also says that the true 
maritima has not as yet been found in Florida. 

Young specimens are furnished with several tooth-like 
processes within the aperture, one being on the columellar, 
one on the parietal wall, and a third on the base of the 
aperture, removed somewhat within. 

The variety figured on pi. 79, fig. 17, is from Key Bis- 
cayne, Fla. 

PUPA MODICA GOULD. vol. ii. 319, pi. Hi. fig. 2. 

Pupa modica PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 533. 

PUPA ARMIFERA SAY vol. ii. p. 320, pi. Ixx. fig. 4. 

Pupa armifera SAY, (Carychium ?) Binney's ed. p. 21. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 557. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 57, pi. vii. figs. 17-19. 
Pupa rupicola PFEIFFER, Symb. ii. 55, teste Pfr. 1. c. 

Say's original specimen is still preserved in the Phila- 
delphia Academy. He appears to have considered it a 
Carychium. 

PUPA BADIA ADAMS vol. ii. p. 323, pi. Ixx. fig. 3. 

Pupa badia DsKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 49, pi. iv. fig. 45. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2. p. 117, pi. xv. figs. 25-29. 
Pupa muscorum, pars, PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 312. 

FORBES and HAN LEY, Brit. Moll. iv. 97. 



PUPA. 143 

It will be noticed that the wood-cut does not show the 
basal tooth, as does the plate referred to. Its presence 
seems exceptional. 

Adams (1. c.) compares it with Pupa marginata Dr., 
while the above authorities consider it identical with P. 
muscorum of Europe. 

PUPA CONTRACTA SAY vol. ii. p. 324, pi. Ixx. fig. 2. 

Pujm contracta SAY, (Carychium,) Barney's ed. p. 25. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 556. 

Pupa corticaria PFEIFFEE, Symb. ii. p. 54, (an. var. /3? Pfr. 1. c.) 
Pupa deltostoma CHARPENTIER, in Chemnitz, ed. 2, p. 181, pi. 21, figs. 17-19. 
Vertigo contracta ADAMS, Gen. ii. 172, absq. descr. 

The figure of Kiister is more like armifera. His 
description is of contracta. 

Pupa deltostoma is evidently this species. The descrip- 
tion is as follows : 

T. late profundeque rimata, ovato-conoidea, niticlula, glabriuscula, 
alba ; spira convexo-conica, obtusa ; anfr. 5 convexis, ultimo basi rotun- 
dato, antice calloso ; apertura trigona, quadriplicata, pi. 1 lamelliformi 
in pariete aperturali, 1 in columella, 2 in palato, peristomate unclique 
expanse, margin! bus conjunctis Tennessee. 

PUPA DECORA GOULD vol. ii. p. 327. pi. Ixxi. fig. 2. 

Pitjm decora PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 555. 

Vertigo decora ADAMS, Gen. Eec. Moll. ii. 172, (absq. desc.) 

PUPA PENTODON SAY vol. ii. p. 328, pi. Ixii. fig. 1. 

Vertigo pentodon SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 27. 

Pupa pzntodon CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 125, pi. xvi. figs. 24-26. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 557. 
Pupa curvidens PFEIFFER, 1. c. ii. 

In the second volume of the Monograph, Pfeiffer places 
both Tappaniana and curvidens in the synonymy. De 
Kay's figure shows no tooth. Say's type is still preserved 
in the Philadelphia Academy. Adams's description is as 
follows : 



144 HELICEA. 

PUPA TAPPANIANA Ward, MSS. P. testa minima, pellucida, sub- 
conica, perforata ; anfractibus quinque ; apertura suborbiculari, 8-den- 
tata : dente uno columellari, majore, quatuor alteris magnis, tribus 
alteris parvis. 

Shell very small, pale horn-color, translucent, tapering above the 
penultimate whorl ; whorls a little more than five, convex, with a well 
impressed suture ; aperture sub-orbicular, (the penult whorl cutting off 
about one third of the circle,) about one third of the length of the shell ; 
margin sharp, with a narrow contraction in the sub-margin, beneath 
which is a thickening within, on which are the labial teeth ; teeth eight, 
five primary and three secondary ; of the former the largest is on the 
penultimate whorl, the next largest on the left side of the aperture ; at 
the base, beginning at the left hand, is a primary, then a secondary, a 
primary, a secondary, a primary, and another secondary, extending nearly 
to the upper extremity of the right margin : the last three primaries are 
not constant in size ; umbilicus open. 

Length, .08 inch ; breadth, .05 inch. 

Cabinets of Middlebury College and my own. 

Geographical Distribution. This shell has been found in Ohio, in 
Massachusetts, near Boston, and in this place. 

Remarks. This species was discovered by the late Dr. Ward of Ros- 
coe, Ohio, from whom I received specimens in April, 1840, with the 
above name. This I retain in justice to Dr. W., who was alike eminent 
for his attainments and liberalitv, and in whose sudden death science 

/ ' 

sustained a severe loss. Subsequently the species was found in Cam- 
bridge, Mass.. by my friend T. J. Whittemore, Esq., and Dr. Gould. 
Among some minute shells collected in this town by Mr. M. W. Johnson, 
of the graduating class of last summer, I have detected this species, but 
too- late for insertion in an article, on the Mollusca of this vicinity, in the 
next number of the American Journal of Science and Arts, and have 
therefore published this description separately. 



PUPA PL.ACIDA SAY. 

Shell dextral, cylindric-conic, pale yellowish horn-color ; apex 
whitish, obtuse ; whorls six and a half, somewhat wrinkled ; suture 
moderately impressed ; aperture unarmed, longitudinally oval, 
truncate a little obliquely above by the penultimate volution ; colu- 
mella so recurved as almost to conceal the umbilicus ; labrum, with 
the exception of the superior portion, appearing a little recurved 



PUPA. 145 

when viewed in front, but when viewed in profile, this recurva- 
ture is hardly perceptible ; umbilicus very narrow. 

Length over three tenths of an inch. Inhabits Massachusetts. 

For this shell I am indebted to Dr. T. W. Harris, of Milton, 
from whom I have received many interesting species of our more 
northern regions. At first view it might be mistaken for the P. 
marginata Nob., but it is quadruple the size, and the labrum is 
not reflected and thickened. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Pupaplacida SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 39. 
Pi/pa fallax DE!VAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 51. 

GOULD, Invert. 192. 

Pupafallax PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 309. 
Bulimus hordeanus? DEKAY, 1. c. 
Bulimus obscurus GOULD, Mon. Pupa, p. 17. 

PFEIFFER, iii. 350, on DEKAY'S authority. 

Remarks. This will probably always remain a doubt- 
ful species, since those having the best means of deciding 
upon it have not been able to agree. I therefore simply 
give Say's original description. 

PUPA RUPICOLA SAY vol. ii. p. 341, pi. Ixx. fig. 1. 

Carychium? rupicola SAY (Binney's ed.) p. 22. 

Pupa rupicola CHEMNITZ, eel. 2, p. 123, pi. xvi. figs. 17-19. 

DE!VAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 52. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 557; nee Symb. ii. 55. 
Pupaprocera CHEMNITZ, p. 58, pi. vii. figs. 20, 21. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. ii. 360. 
Pupa carinata GOULD, 1842, Boston Journ. iv. 1, cover, p. 3. 

PFEIFFER, 1. c. ii. 359 ; iii. 557. 

Pupa gibbosa CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 123, pi. xvi. figs. 13-16. 
Pupa minuta (SAY) PFEIFFER, 1. c. ii. 356; iii. 555; Synib. ii. 54. 
Vertigo rupicola BINNEY, 1. c. 

minuta f ADAMS, Gen. ii. 172, absq. descr. 

Pupa procera is said to be identical with rupicola by 
Binney (Boston Proc. i. 105). Gould doubts the correct- 
ness of this decision (p. 106). DeKay confirms it, as does 
Pfeiffer in vol. iii. of his Monograph. 

19 



146 HELICEA. 

Pupa carinata Gould was subsequently referred by him 
to P. procera (1. c. iv. 3, p. 359) ; Pfeiffer retains it, not 
having, however, seen the shell. Binney (Boston Proc. i. 
105) considers it a doubtful species. No mention of it is 
made in the Terrestrial Mollusks. 

Say never described any species of Pupa under the 
names of gibbosa or minuta which are ascribed to him. 
Pfeiffer considers the two identical. Roemer quotes mi- 
nuta from Texas. On pi. 78, fig. 17, will be found a fac- 
simile of the figure of gibbosa from Chemnitz. Pfeiffer's 
description of minuta is as follows. From the two I should 
consider the species identical with rupicola. 

PUPA MINUTA. T. vix rimata, cylindrica, nitida, pellucida, cornea ; 
spira apice obtusa ; anfr. 6 convexiusculi, ultimus basi subcompressus ; aper- 
tura subsemicircularis, 4-dentata; dentibus subaequalibus, 1 parietal!, 
1 columellari, 2 palatalibus ; perist. expansuoi, sublabiatum, margini- 
bus disjunctis, dextro superne arcuato. Long. 2|, diain. 1 mill. Ap. 
oblique | mill, longa. Habitat in Pennsylvania. 

Obs. An forte varietas P. procerce ? 

I suppose Vertigo minuta of Adams's Genera to be this 
species. 

It is also placed in the subgenus Vertigo by Binney, 
though the animal had not been seen. 

PUPA VARIOLOSA GOULD vol. ii. 343, pi. Ixxii. fig. 3. 

Pupa variolosa PFEIFFER. Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 556. 
Vertigo variolosa ADAMS, Gen. ii. 172. 

PUPA CORTICARIA SAY vol. ii. p. 339, pi. Ixxii. fig. 4. 

Odostomia corticaria SAY ( Binney 's ed.) p. 7, pi. Ixxii. fig. 5. 
Pupa corticaria PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 542. 

CHEMNITZ, 1. c. p. 97. 
Carychium corticaria FERUSSAC, Podr. No. 3, (absq. desc.) 

Pfeiffer (Mon. ii.) says that the corticaria of the Sym- 
bolse is P. contracta. 



PUPA. 147 

Binney places the species among the Vertigines, though 
it is described as having four tentacles. 

Ferussac, 1. c., considered it a Carychium. 

Say's type is still preserved in the collection of the Phil- 
adelphia Academy. 

PUPA PELLTJCIDA PFEIFFER. 

T. subperforata, cylindracea, tenuis, pellucida, nitida, pallide flavida ; 
spira parum attenuata, apice obtusa ; anfr. 5 convex!, ultiiiius prasce- 
dente planior ; apertura semiovalis, 5-dentata : dentibus singulis validis 
in pariete aperturali et columella, 2 mediocribus in margine dextro, 
quinto niinimo in basi palati ; perist. simplex, margine dextro expanse, 
columellari reflexo. Long. 2 ; diam. vix 1 mill. Ap. vix mill, longa. 
(Pfeifier Mon. Hel. Yiv. ii. 360.) 

This is Pfeiffer's description of a Cuban species quoted 
from Texas by Roemer (p. 456.) 

PUPA HOPPII ROLLER. 
PLATE LXXVIII. FIGURE 2. 

Testa dextrorsa, cylindracea, obtusa, laevi ; columella bidentata. Long. 
1, 2/", R. (Moller.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Pupa Hoppii MOLLER, Ind. Moll. Groenl. p. 4, (1842.) 

TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1843, ii. 126. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, pi. xix. figs. 29, 30. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 328; iii. 536. 
Pupa Sleenbuchii BECK, (1847,) teste MORCH, Nat. Bidr. of Groenl. p. 75. 

Remarks. I have seen no specimen of this Greenland 
shell. The figure I have given is a fac-simile of one of 
those in Chemnitz, ed. 2. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Pupa albilabris Ad. is the same as Bui. marginatus. 
P. costulata Mighels is the same as Bui. harpa. 
P. exigua Say, &c. is the same as Carychium exiguum. 
P. fallax Say, &c. is the same as Bui. marginatus. 



148 HELICEA. 

P. Gouldii Binn. &c. is the same as Vertigo Gouldii. 
P. milium Gld. is the same as Vertigo milium. 
P. modesta Say &c. is the same as Vertigo ovata. 
P. ovata Gld. &c. is the same as Vertigo ovata. 
P. ovulum Pf. is the same as Vertigo ovata. 
P. Parraiana Orb. is the same as Bui. marginatus. 
P. simplex Gld. &c. is the same as Vertigo simplex. 
P. unicarinata Bin., vol. i., is the same as Macroceramus pon- 
tificus. 

SUBGENUS VERTIGO. 

Stimpson, 1851, Shells of N. E., p. 53, separates this 
group from the Helicidse, considering the want of lower 
tentacles sufficient to form a family of Vertiginidae. 

VERTIGO GOULDII BINNEY vol. ii. p. 333, pi. Ixii. fig. 2. 

Vertigo Gouldii STIMPSON, Shells of N. E., p. 53, absq. desc.. 
Pupa Gouldii CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 124, pi. xvi. figs. 20-23.* 
PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 557. 

VERTIGO MILIUM GOULD vol. ii. p. 337, pi. Ixxi. fig. 1. 

Pupa milium PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 559. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 119, pi. xv. figs. 39-42. 

VERTIGO OVATA SAY vol. ii. p. 334, pi. Ixxi. fig. 4. 

Vertigo ovata SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 26. 

Pupa ovata CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 118, pi. xiv. figs. 1, 2; xv. figs. 35-38. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 360; iii. 558; Symb. ii. 54. 
Pupa modesta SAY, (Binney's ed.) p. 32, pi. 74, fig. 5. 
Pupa ovulum PFEIFFER, olim, Symb. i. 46. 

Adams (1. c.) considers these two species distinct. 
Found also in Mexico and Cuba, (PfeifFer.) 

VERTIGO SIMPLEX GOULD vol. ii. p. 343, pi. Ixxii. fig. 3. 

Vertigo simplex STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. p. 53, (absq. desc.) 
Pupa simplex PFEIFFER, 1. c. iii. 530. 

* "In the States of New York, Baltimore, Cambi-idge." 



CYLINDRELLA. 149 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

V. contracta Ad. Gen. Rec. Moll, is the same as Pupa contracta. 
V. decora Ad. Gen. Rec. Moll, is the same as Pupa decora. 
V. minuta Ad. Gen. Rec. Moll, is the same as Pupa rupicola. 
V. pentodon Say is the same as Pupa pentodon. 
V. rupicola Binney is the same as Pupa rupicola. 

GENUS CYLINDRELLA PFEIFFER. 
CYLINDRELLA VARIEGATA PFEIFFER. 

This species was described by Pfeiffer before C. lactaria 
Gould was published. Their identity is well established. 
I have not received any specimens of the true variegata 
from Florida, or any other portions of the United States. 
Pfeiffer (Mai. Blatt. i. 211) gives Florida as its habitat, 
probably on the authority of Gould's description in the 
Terrestrial Mollusks. At that time the figure had not 
been published. 

Specimens of lactaria Gould, received from himself and 
also from Poey, agree perfectly with the text (p. 309), but 
are not the shell figured (pi. 69, fig. 2). Neither do they 
agree with the Florida shell. Having sent specimens of 
the shell found in Florida to Poey, he returned them 
labelled C. Poeyana Orb., and sent me Cuban specimens 
of the same species. 

It follows, therefore, that the shell figured (pi. 69, fig. 2) 
is not described in the text, where reference is erroneously 
made to it under C. lactaria Gould, which is C. variegata 
Pfr. It will be noticed that no reference to geographical 
distribution is made by Gould. The shell figured is de- 
scribed in the following article. 

CYLINDRELLA POEYANA ORBIGNY. 

PLATE LXIX. FIGURE 2. 

T. elongatissima, fusoidea, tenuis, cornea, longitudinaliter acuto-striata ; 
spira elongatissima, inflata, postice acuminata, truncata; anfr. 11 convex- 
iusculi, ultimus antice carinatus ; apertura rotundata ; perist. continuum, 
acutum. Long. 14, diam. 13 mill. (Orbigny.) 



150 HELICEA. 

SYNONYMS AND EEFERENCES. 

Pupa Poeyana ORBIGNY, Moll. Cuba, i. 185, pi. xii. figs. 24-26. 
Cylindrella Poeyana PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 380; iii. 572. 

POEY Memorias, ii. pi. xii. fig. 10. 
Cylindrella lactaria BINNEY, 1. c. in tab. non in textu. 

Remarks. This is the shell figured under the name of 
lactaria Gould, as remarked in the preceding article. I 
will here add that this species may readily be distinguished 
from lactaria by having much rougher striae, and by being 
entirely free from the "longitudinal, flexuose, milk-white 
lines " which are the principal characteristic of that spe- 
cies, and from which, indeed, its name is derived. 

Found in large quantities in Florida ; also in Cuba. 

CYLINDRELLA JEJUNA GOULD vol. ii. p. 310, pi. Ixix. fig. 3. 

Cylindrella jejuna PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. iii. 573. 
Cylindrella variegata PFEIFFER, Mai. Bl. ii. 13. 

Pfeiffer, in repeating Gould's description, not having 
seen the shell, suggests its being a variety of C. lactaria. 
Later (Mai. Blatt. ii. 13) he considers it a synonym of 
that species, which he refers to his variegata. 

CYLINDRELLA ROEMERI PFEIFFER. 

T. vix rimata, subcylindracea, apice obtuse conica, non truncata, sub- 
striata, carneo-albida ; anfr. 14 angusti, planiusculi, ultimas basi carinatus, 
antrprsuin solutus et extrorsum tortus ; apertura verticalis, oblongo-circu- 
laris, intus plica marginis dextri coarctata : perist. continuum, undique 
breviter expansum. Long. 13-14, diam. 4^ mill. Ap. 3 mill, longa, 
2 lata. 

(3. Minor, sursum ventrosior, anfr. 12, ultimo brevius soluto ; long. 11, 
diam. supra medium 4 mill. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 



Cylindrella Roemeri PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 383 ; iii. 579 ; in Roemer's 

Texas, p. 456. 

Remarks. I have not seen this shell, which was found 
by Roemer at New Brauenfels, Texas. I have given the 
original description above, and add an observation from 
the same source : 



CYLINDRELLA. 151 

Affinis quidem et precedent! (C. Piloceri Pfr.) et sequenti (C. Gold- 
fussi Mke.), tarnen carina basalo anfractus ultimi et ejus torsione tarn sin- 
gulari, ut testarn primo aspectu sinistrorsem putes, ab omnibus distinctis- 
sinio. 

CYLINDRELLA GOLDFUSSI PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 33. 

C. testa elliptico-oblonga, subcylindracea, apice conica, Integra, acuta ; 
umbilicata, luteo-cornea, tenui, pellucida ; anfractibus undecim, convex- 
iusculis, dense et tenuissime arcuatim costulatis : infimo parum protracto, 
basi rotundato, conipressiusculo ; apertura patente orbiculato-subcordata ; 
canaliculo brevissimo, obtuso. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

CylindreUa Goldfussi MENKE, in Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1847, p. 2. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Hel. Viv. ii. 383; iii. 579. 
PHILIPPI, Icon. iii. 17, p. 6, tab. iii. fig. 9. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell umbilicated, elongated, more ventricose at the 
middle, apex conic, not truncated, thin, diaphanous, light 
horn-color, marked with numerous light subarcuate striae ; 
whorls 12, scarcely convex, narrow, the last slightly ex- 
tended beyond the body of the shell, carinated, its right 
side somewhat furrowed, rounded at base ; aperture sub- 
vertical, obliquely and subtriangularly pear-shaped ; perist. 
slightly expanded at its entire circumference, its right ter- 
mination flexuose. 

Length, 11 ; diameter, 4 mill. 

Geographical Distribution. Texas, (PfeifFer.) 

Remarks. The figure (somewhat magnified) is drawn 
from a specimen from Mr. Eland's collection. 

In general form, it is more nearly allied to Macroceramus 
pontificus than any other figured in the " Mollusks." 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

CylindreUa pontifica Gould (p. 306) is Macroceramus pontificus, 
vid. p. 137. 



152 AURICULACEA. 

This concludes the list of known American Helicidae. 
The following genera and species have been described by 
Rafinesque, but are all included in the genus Helix : 

Aplodon Raf. Stenostoma Raf. 

Aplodon nodosum Raf. Stenotrema Raf. 

Chimotrema Raf. Stenotrema convexa Raf. 

Chimotrema planiuscida Raf. Toxostoma Raf. 

Hemiloma Raf. Toxostoma globularis Raf. 

Hemiloma avara Raf. Toxotrema Raf. 

Mesodon Raf. Toxotrema globularis Raf. 

Mesodon maculatum Raf. Toxotrema complanata Raf. 

Mesomphix Raf. Triodopsis Raf. 

Odomphium Raf. Triodopsis lunula Raf. 

Odotropis Raf. Trophodon Raf. 

Omphalina Raf. Xolotrema Raf. 

Omphalina cuprea Raf. ; vide Xolotrema lunula Raf. 

Helix fuliginosa. Xolotrema triodopsis Raf. 

On vol. i., p. 48 et seq. will be found a reprint and translation of 
Rafinesque's descriptions. The following, omitted by Binney, will 
make the series complete : 

Aplodon nodosum. Trois tours de spire bosseles, legerement rides con- 
centriquement en dessous. 

The genus Trophodon differs from Mesodon by upper lip notched. The 
genus Odomplrium.) by having an ombilic. 

Toxostoma globularis. Globular, smooth ; 5 spires. In Kentucky. 

Parlula Otaheitana Fer., as observed in vol. i. p. 159, never 
existed in the United States. 

FAMILY AURICULACEA. 

Dr. Binney, in his work on the Terrestrial Mollusks of 
this country, mentions that there is much reason to doubt 
whether this family is truly Pneumo-branchiate. Con- 
sidering its species to be, at all events, aquatic, he does 
not include them in his work. 



AURICULACEA. 



More recent investigations have shown that they respire 
free air, and that they are amphibious rather than aquatic. 
The systematic arrangement of this family may be seen 
in the following tables, as proposed by Dr. Pfeiffer and 
H. and A. Adams. The arrangement adopted in the fol- 
lowing pages corresponds with that of the former. I do 
not propose to refer to the many systems of other foreign 
authors, but shall notice those proposed by Americans. 

By this table it will appear that Pfeiffer divides the air- 
breathing Mollusks in two grand divisions ; A, including 
those furnished with four tentacles, and B, including those 
with two only. The latter are also subdivided into #, 
those not operculated, and 6, those furnished with an oper- 
culum. In the former of these subdivisions, he places the 
family Auriculacea. 

In the " Genera of Recent Mollusca," the air-breathing 
Gasteropods are divided into Inoperculate and Operculate. 
The former are subdivided, according to their terrestrial, 
lacustrine, and marine habits, into Geophila, Limnophila, 
and Thassilophila. The second subdivision is composed 
of the Auriculacea, under the name of Elobiadce, and the 
Limnceidce. 

In both of these systems, the family is placed nearest 
to the fresh-water Pulmonates, with which they are more 
closely allied than with the land snails. 

Dr. Pfeiffer (Mon. Auric. Viv.) thus divides the 



PULMONATA. 



A. Tetracera, 



f 



( 



B. Dicera, 



a. Inoperculata, . 



b. Operculata, -j 



I a. Terrestria, 



,.,. 
. Aquatilia, . 



I. Onchidiacea. 
II. Limacea. 

III. Helicea. 

IV. Limnoeacea. 
V. Auriculacea. 

VI. Proserpinacea. 
VII. Aciculacea. 
VIII. Cyclostomacea, 
JX. Helicinacea. 
X. Amphibolacea. 
XI. Ampullariacea. 



20 



154 



AURICULA CEA. 



In the " Genera of Recent Mollusca," by Henry and 
Arthur Adams, the following division is made of the air- 
breathing Gasteropoda : 



ORDER. 



SUBCLASS PULMONIFERA. 



SUBORDER, 



Inoperculata, 



Geophila, 



Limnophila, 
Thassilophila, 

Ectophthalma, 
Operculata, < Qpisophthalma, 
{ Prosophthalma, 



FAMILY. 

{ Oleacinidte. 

Testac'ellidse. 

Helic-idce. 

Lhnacidje. 

Stonopidae. 

Avion id re. 

Janellidffi. 

Veronicellidoe, 
[ Onchidiidse. 
\ Kllobiidre. 
I Limnseidse. 

Amphibolida?. 

Siphonaridse. 
( Cyclophoridae. 
/ Heliciniiln?. 

Truneatellidse, 

Assiminidae. 



The family Ellobiidae corresponds to PfeifFer r s family 
Auriculacea. 

This family has been noticed only by the following 
American authors. The treatment of the various genera 
and species will be found in their respective synonymy. 

In 1841 Gould placed the genus Auricula in the Lam- 
arkian family Colimacea. 

DeKay in 1843 places the Auriculidce as the third 
family of Pulmobranchia. He unites all the species de- 
scribed in his Zoology of New York in the genus Auri- 
cula. 

Stimpson in 1851 catalogues the family Melampidce, 
comprising the genera Melampus and Carychium. He 
was the first American to remove Carychium exiguum 
from the genus Pupa. 

The Auriculacea are easily distinguished from the other 
inoperculated land Mollusks. They are furnished with 
but one pair of non-retractile tentacles, on the inner 
base of which are situated the sessile eyes. The head 
is extended beyond the tentacles into an obtuse, rounded, 



AURICULACEA. 155 

bilobed snout. The mantle is thin, thickened on its mar- 
gin. The foot is elongated and pointed. The sexes are 
united in each individual. 

The shell is spiral, extremely variable, and in the Amer- 
ican species conic, generally with a flattened spire, and 
furnished with numerous tooth-like laminae, which con- 
tract the narrow aperture. 

The Auriculidce are amphibious Mollusks, breathing 
free air, but apparently dependent for existence on a great 
deal of moisture, if not on the actual vicinity of the sea. 
Some species pass their whole life under circumstances 
which seem to preclude the possibility of their respiring 
air. Thus Alexia myosotis is often found on isolated 
stones in salt marshes, which are entirely covered by the 
tide four hours out of twelve. This species, when im- 
mersed in fresh water, becomes benumbed and soon dies. 

Carychium exigmun, on the other hand, though found 
under similar circumstances, does not depend on salt 
water, being widely distributed far beyond its influence 
over the interior of the country. Blauneria pellucida also 
has been detected living far from any water in a garden 
in Washington, whither it was introduced on plants from 
Charleston, S. C. With the exception of the two last 
mentioned, the American species are found on salt marshes 
and in brackish water near the sea. 

Of their geographical distribution but little is yet known. 
Melampus bidentatus is found from Maine to Florida. 
Melampus obliquus is referred by Say to South Carolina. 
Alexia myosotis was probably introduced from Europe, 
I have never known of its being found south of New 
York harbor. Carychium exiguum will probably be found 
in all the Middle and Northern States. The other species 
are confined to the coast of Florida and the Gulf of 
Mexico, some of them being common to Cuba and other 
West Indian Islands. 



156 AURICULACEA. 

In order to make the following a complete monograph 
of American Auriculacea, I have copied from the Terres- 
trial Mollusks the entire description of the few species 
mentioned in that work. 

So few persons are interested in this family of Mollusks, 
and the extent of our coast is so great, the following must 
be considered as a very imperfect attempt at a monograph 
of the American species of the family. 

PfeifFer subdivides the family into three subfamilies : 
Otinea,) Melampea, and Auriculea, respectively analogous 
to the Ancylea, a subfamily of Limneacea, to the true 
Limneacea, and to the Aciculacea. The first subfamily is 
not represented in this country. 

SUBFAMILY MELAMPEA. 

This subfamily is distinguished by an acute, simple 
peristorne. The aperture is generally armed with tooth- 
like laminaB. The animals of all our species are subaquatic, 
living in close proximity to salt or brackish water. 

H. and A. Adams give the name of Melampince to this 
subdivision. In America it has been noticed as a family 
by Stimpson, (Shells of N. E.), who calls it Melampidce, 
and includes one species and one genus which PfeifTer 
refers to a separate subdivision of the family. 

GENUS MELAMPUS MOXTFORT. 

The characteristics of this genus are the same as those 
already given for the subfamily. 

It is an inhabitant of every quarter of the globe. 

MELAMPUS BIDENTATUS SAY. 

PLATE LXXV. FIGURE 23. 

T. imperforata, elliptico-ovata, tenuiusc-ula, nitens, (aut corrosa,) lineis 
minutis transversis, et rugulis longitudinalibus notata ; cornea, aut griseo- 
brunnea, interdum fasciis 4 rufis, angustis, cingulata ; sutura distincta ; 
spira brevis, obtusa ; anfr. 6-7, super! planiusculi, ultimus f- long, aequans, 



MELAMPUS. 157 

obtuse subcarinatus ; apertura subobliqua, angusta, ad basin expansior, 
f long, sequans; perist. simplex, acutum, tenue, intus inerme, aut denti- 
bus albis, transversis, 1-7, marginem non attingentibus, in liras decurren- 
tibus, interdum in callo longitudinali positis, armatum ; paries aperturalis 
callo nitente induta, et dente unica, alba, transversa, in aperturam intrante 
armata; columella plicaui imam, albam, ad basin excurrentem gerens ; 
anfr. intern! et axis absorpti. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Mdampus bidentatus SAY, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. vol. ii. p. 245, July. 1822; 

Binney's ed. p. 84. 
RUSSELL, Journ. Essex Co. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. i. part 2, p. 

67, anno 1839. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Auric. Viv. p. 45, (excl. Mel. borealis). 
ADAMS, Genera, ii. p. 243, Sept. 1855, absq. desc. 
Mdampus biplicatus PFEIFFER, Mon. Auric. Viv. p. 21. 
Mdampus corneus STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. p. 51, (absq. desc.) 

BECK, Ind. (absq. desc.) 

Melampus ? Jaumei PFEIFFER, Mon. Auric. Viv. p. 25. 
Melampus linealus BECK, Ind. (absq. desc.) p. 107. 
Auricula cornea DESHAYES, Encycl. Meth. ii. p. 90; ditto in Lara. ed. 2, viii. p. 

339; ed. 3, vol. iii. p. 390, (1839). 
Auricula bidentata GOULD, Inv. Mass. p. 197, fig. 130. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 57, t. v. fig. 92, 1, 2, 3. 
KUSTER, Chemn. ed. 2, Auric, p. 41, pi. vi. figs. 7-11. 
JAY, Cat. 264, (absq. desc.) 

Non Auricula bidens POTIEZ et MICHAUD, p. 201, pi. xx. figs. 9, 10. 
Auricula Jaumei MITTRE, Rev. Zob'l. (Mars. 1841.) p. 66. 
Auricula biplicata DESHAYES, Encycl. Meth. ii. p. 91. 
Conoiulus biplicatus BECK, Ind. 106, (absq. desc.) 
Melampus bidentatus var. linealus SAY, 1. c. 
Melampus bidentatus (3. PFEIFFER, 1. c. p. 46. 
a. DE!VAY, 1. c. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal about as long as the shell, and the foot is trans- 
versely bifid ; tentacula somewhat wrinkled, cylindrical, 
rather smaller towards the tips, which are obtuse or round- 
ed ; eyes placed at the inner base of the tentacula ; rostrum 
somewhat wrinkled, nearly as long as the tentacula, bilo- 
bate before ; foot, anterior segment emarginate behind, 
posterior segment bifid at the extremity ; all above, with 
the exception of the tentacula and rostrum, glabrous, 
reddish-brown, beneath paler. (Say.) 



158 AURICULACEA. 

Shell im perforate, elliptically ovate, rather thin, shining 
when perfect, but usually found much eroded ; the surface 
is marked with longitudinal wrinkles, and very minute 
revolving striae; horn-color, or grayish-red, often with re- 
volving, narrow, rufous bands, four or five in number; 
suture well marked; spire short, and usually obtuse, often 
somewhat eroded ; whorls usually 6, the upper ones flat- 
tened, the body whorl equalling about | of the entire length 
of the shell, and obtusely angulated at its greatest width ; 
aperture hardly oblique, very long and narrow, enlarging 
gradually towards the base, about f the length of the shell 
peristome very thin and sharp, not reflected, on the interior 
furnished with no laminae, or with from one to seven; 
these laminae are elongated, white, and do not reach the 
margin ; they are usually separate, placed at irregular in- 
tervals, but sometimes are found on a longitudinal ele- 
vated, white callus; they enter but a short distance into 
the aperture ; the parietal wall of the aperture is covered 
with a thin, shining, enamel-like callus, and bears on its 
lower half a single, white, prominent and transverse tooth, 
entering into the aperture ; the columellar is also furnished 
with a white, tooth-like fold, commencing at the termina- 
tion of the sharp peristome, and revolving upwards into 
the. interior of the shell; this fold does not extend far into 
the aperture, as all the internal whorls and axis of the shell 
are early absorped by the animal. 

Length of an unusually large individual 13, breadth 7 
millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. I have this species from the 
vicinity of Boston, from New Jersey, and South Carolina. 
Say found it at the mouth of the St. John's River, in 
Florida, and in Maryland ; Mittre gives Virginia ; Pfeiffer, 
Georgia ; DeKay, New York. Stimpson did not detect it 
farther North than Massachusetts Bay. It may, therefore, 
be said to range from that point southward along the 



MELAMPUS. 159 

whole Atlantic coast. It has also been found in Texas, 
(Roemer.) 

Gould mentions its being said to have been found living 
with a Planorbis at Windsor, Vt. If so, it must be adapt- 
ed to a remarkable difference of station, being usually 
found near the sea. Pfeiffer also gives Vermont as the 
habitat, probably on the above authority. 

Remarks. This shell is familiar to all those who have 
collected among the salt marshes of Massachusetts Bay. 
Around Boston it is found not far below high-water-mark, 
often crawling up the stems of grasses, as if to avoid the 
returning tide. 

The shell when young is quite pretty, being shining and 
often variegated by the revolving bands. But few mature 
shells are met with in a perfect condition. They are 
usually much eroded. From the toothless outer lip to 
that bearing a heavy callus ridged with transverse laminae, 
every intermediate variety is found. The absence of the 
laminae is equally common in mature and young shells. 

Authentic specimens of this species are still preserved 
in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 

The original descriptions of Mittre and Deshayes are 
given below. I have seen authentic specimens of neither 
of their shells. The descriptions are merely copied by 
Pfeiffer, in the works referred to in the synonymy. 

Say designates by the name of lineatus, a form peculiar 
for its revolving lines or bands and more narrow base of 
the aperture, (vid. Binn. ed. p. 85.) I have met with none 
sufficiently marked to form a variety, much less a distinct 
species. The revolving lines are very commonly found on 
young specimens. DeKay mentions this as var. a, Pfeiffer 
as >. The latter author thus describes a var. y. 



Anfractu ultimo infra suturam subexcavato, minute spiraliter 



160 AURICULACEA, 

striato, labro pone limbum fuscum albo-calloso, regalariter 6-10 
plicato. Georgia. 

He quotes in the synonymy of this variety Mel. borealis 
Conr. of Cuming's collection. Conrad's species is much 
more likely to be Alexia myosotis than any variety of Mel- 
bide ntatus. 

Potiez and Michaud describe and figure quite a distinct 
shell under the name of Auricula bidens Say. 

Stimpson gives precedence to Deshayes's name corneus. 
Say's name has eight years priority, and is not preoccupied 
in the genus Melampus. It was while treated as an Auri- 
cula that any question existed in regard to its specific 
name. 

PI. 75, fig. 23, represents a specimen not furnished with 
laminae within the peristome. 

The date of publication of this species is erroneously 
quoted by Pfeiffer as 1821. The title-page of the first 
part of vol. ii. of the Academy Proceedings bears this date. 
The description was actually published at the date given 
by me. 

AURICULA JAUMEI. A. testa conoidea, laevi, corneo-lutescente, longi- 
tudinaliter substriata ; spira brevi, obtusa, ssepe erosa; apertura elongata, 
angustissima ; columella basi alba, biplicata, labro tenui, acuto, intus 
dentato atque sulcato. 

Petite coquille mince, presque lisse, conoide, d'une couleur jaunatre 
cornee ; chez les jeunes individus on voit des fascies brunes, transversales 
et reguliercment disposees. Sa spire est courte, obtuse, souvent erodee^ 
comme chez la plupart des coquilles fluviatiles ; 1'ouverture est etroite, 
allongee ; la columelle offre, vers sa base, deux dents blanches, egales et 
legerement obliques; le bord droit, simple et tranchant, presente, a 
I'interieur, une rangee de plis saillans, inegaux, separes par des sillons 
d'autant plus rnarques qu'ils sont plus inferieurs. Cette Auricule appar- 
tient a la section des Conovules ; elle est voisine de V Auricula cornea de 
Deshayes, dont elle differe neanmoins par son bord droit constamment 
dente et sillone. Elle a 3 a 4 lignes de longeur. 

Elle habite les marais, aux environs de Hampton en Virginie, ou elle 



MELAMPUS. 161 

vit presque tonjours dans 1'eau ; rarement la trouve-t-on montee sur les 
joncs qui eomblent les mares d'eau ou ces Mollusques abondent. 

Dediee a mon ami M. Jaume, cliirurgien de la Marine, qui, pendant 
mou voyage sur le vaisseau 1'Hercule, m'a accompagne et aide dans mes 
recherches Zoologiques. (Mittre, 1. c.) 

AURICULA CORNEA. A. testa oyato-coniformi, translucida, transversira 
substriata, corneo-grisea, spira brevi, obtusa, saepe erosa; apertura angus. 
ta, elongata, columella biplicata, basi alba, labro tenui, acuto. 

Habite les marais salins des environs de New York. Petite coquille 
ovulaire, lisse, couleur de corne, a test mince et translueide ; elle appar- 
tient a la seetion des Conovules ; sa spire est courte et obtuse, son ouver- 
ture longe et etroite a un bord droit, simple et tranchant ; vers la base, 
la eolumelle offre deux petits plis blancs, egaux et peu obliques. Cette 
petite coquille a 10 niillim. de long et 6 de large. (Desh. in Lam. 1. c.) 

MELAMPUS CINGTJLATUS PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURES 12, 13. 

T. imperforata, fusiformis, solida, sublasvigata, nitida, fusca, fasciis inse- 
qualibus albidis cingulata; spira convexo-conica, acute-mucronulata ; su- 
tura simplex; anfr. 10, superi planiusculi, perangusti, ultimus f longi- 
tudinis fere asquans, basi attenuatus; apertura vix obliqua, angustissima, 
basi plica unica columellari valida, acuta, oblique ascendente bipartita ; 
perist. simplex, acutum, margiue dextro intus dentes 6-8, quorum infimum 
majoreni, plicjeformeni, gerente. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Auricula cingulata PFEIFFER, in Wiegm. Arch. f. Nat. 1840, i. p. 251. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, Auric, p. 40, t. 40, figs. 4-6. 
Auricula oliva ORBIGNY, Moll. Cub. i. p. 189, t. 12, figs. 8-10. 
Auricula stenostoma KUSTER, olim, in Ind. fasc. 42, (teste Pfeiffer). 
Mdumpus cingulatus PFEIFFER, Mon. Auric. Viv. p. 18. 
Auricula JAY. ~\ 

Melampus C. B. ADAMS, SHUTTL., POEY. > absq. descr. 
TmUa H. & A. AD. ) 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not hitherto observed. 

Shell imperforate, fusiform, heavy and thick, shining, 
polished, with numerous microscopic revolving lines, most 
prominent on the last whorl ; brownish, with numerous 
irregularly wide, white revolving bands ; spire convex- 

21 



162 AURICULACEA. 

conic, terminating in an acute transparent point ; suture 
simple ; whorls 10, the upper ones flattened and narrow, 
the last one tapering towards the base, and equalling about 
the length of the shell; aperture hardly oblique, very 
narrow, divided at its base by a stout, sharp, columellar 
fold, which ascends and winds obliquely into the aperture ; 
peristome simple, acute, armed within with from 6 to 8 
elongated laminae, not quite reaching the edge of the lip, 
the lower one being most fully developed. 

Length of the specimen before me, 11 ; breadth, 5 ; 
length of aperture, 6 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. The only American speci- 
men of this species I have seen, was collected in Florida 
by Mr. Bartlett. The species is also found in Cuba, Ja- 
maica, and Porto Rico. 

Remarks. This is one of the species common to the 
peninsula of Florida and some of the West Indian 
Islands. It is well known that very many marine shells 
are also common to the same localities, so that it is easier 
to account for its presence than that of some strictly ter- 
restrial species. 

The shell cannot readily be confounded with any other 
known American species. It is readily distinguished by 
its elongated form, and peculiar enamel-like surface, which 
reminds one of the highly polished Olivce. 

The figure referred to is copied from Orbigny's Mollusca 
of De la Sagra's Cuba. 

MELAMPUS COFFEA LINN^US. 

PLATE LXXV. FIGURES 21, 25. 

Testa imperforata, coniea, solidissima, laevigata, nitens, lineis volventi- 
bus microscopicis, et rugis laevigatis increment! notata ; sub epiderme 
grisea, livida, fasciis 3-4 albis, una ad carinam obtusam lata, alteris an- 
gustioribus, cineta ; sutura mediocris, spira brevis, coniea, apice nigra, 
acuta, nitente; anfr. 9-10, super! planiusculi, ultimus obtuse-subcarinatus, 
-1.7. long, testa? asquans ; apertura subverticalis, longa, angusta, infra la- 



MELAMPUS. 163 

long, aequans ; perist, simplex, intus callis 1-3 longitudinalibus, 
albis, crassis, liras 15-22 transversales, immitentibus armatum; paries 
aperturalis dentes duos, albidos, intrantes, (supero multo majori) gerens; 
columella callo brunneo, nitente, induta, lamina unica, in aperturam as- 
cendente, armata ; anfr. interni absorpti. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Bulla coffea LINN.EUS, Syst. Nat. x. p. 729. 
Voluta coff'ea LINN.EUS, Syst. Nat. xii. p. 1187. 
SCHROTER, Einleit. ii. p. 200. 
GMELIN, Syst. Nat. xiii. p. 3438. 
DILLWYN, Descr. Cat. vol. i. p. 506. 
Voluta minuta GMKLIN, Syst. p. 3436, ex parte. 

DILLWYN, 1. c. p. 506. 
Auricula Midce parva, fusca, albo-fasciala MARTINI et CHEMNITZ, vol. ii. p. 119, 

pi. 43, fig. 445 ? (an potius Mel. flavus?) 

Ellobium Barbaclense BOLTEN, Mus. Britt. p. 106, ed. nov. p. 74 ? 
Bulimus coniformis BRUGUIERE, Encycl. Meth. i. p. 339. 
Melampus coniformis MONTFORT, Conch. Syst. vol. ii. p. 318. 

LOWE, Zool. Journ. vol. v. p. 292. 
ADAMS, Contr. to Conch, p. 42, 186, (absq. descr.) 
SHUTTLEWORTH, Bern. Mitth. (absq. desc.) 

Melampus fusca MORCH, Cat. Yold, p. 38, (teste Pfr.) (absq. desc.) 
Melampus coff'ea MORCH, Cat. Yold, p. 38, (teste Pfr.) (absq. desc.) 
Melampus coffeus ADAMS'S Gen. Rec. Moll. vol. ii. p. 243, t. 82, figs. 7, 7 a, (absq. 

desc.) 

POEY, Mem. sob. Hist. p. 394, (absq. desc.) 
Melampa minuta SCHWEIGGER, Handb. p. 739. 
Tornatelle conif&rme BLAINVILLE, Diet. Sc. Nat. pi. Malac. 54, f. 4. 
Auricula coniformis FERUSSAC, Tab. Syst. p. 109, (absq. desc.) 
LAMARK, Hist. an. s. Vert. vol. vi. 

DESHAYES, in Lam. vol. viii. p. 332 ; ed. 3, vol. iii, p. 387. 
POTIEZ et MICHAUD, Gal. vol. i. p. 202. 
PVEEVE, Conch. Syst. ii. t. 187, f. 7, (teste Pfr.) 
SOWERBY, Conch. Man. p. 77, f. 298 ? 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2 ; Auric, p. 31, t. 4, figs. 14-17. 
PETIT, Journ. Conch, ii. p. 427, (absq. desc.) 

Auricula ovula ORBIGNY, Moll. Cub. vol. i. p. 187, t. 13, figs. 4-7, (1853). 
Conovulus coniformis LAMARK, Encycl. Meth. t. 459, fig. 2, (absq. desc.) 

ANTON, Verz. p. 48, (absq. desc.) 
WOODWARD, Man. Moll. t. 12, f. 37; p. 173, (1854). 
Conovulus coffeus BECK, Ind. p. 106, (absq. desc.) 
Conovulus coffee GRAy, Turt. Man. p. 20, (absq. desc.) 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal (from figure in Adams's Genera, copied on pi. 



164: AURICULACEA. 

75, fig. 21) about the length of the shell ; tentacles short, 
pointed, eyes at their interior base ; proboscis extending 
beyond the head, bilobate, bluntly terminating ; posterior 
termination of the foot short, bifid, color dark brown. 

Shell imperforate, cone-shaped, very solid and heavy, 
smooth and shining in fresh specimens, with delicate 
wrinkles of growth, and very numerous microscopic re- 
volving lines ; light fawn-color when deprived of its russet 
epidermis, with three or four revolving bands of white on 
the body whorl, of which the uppermost is broadest ; 
suture moderate ; spire short, conic, apex black, shining, 
pointed ; whorls from 9-10, the upper ones flattened, the 
last obtusely angulated below the suture, \\ the length of 
the entire shell ; aperture subvertical, long and narrow, 
gradually widening towards the base of the shell, about \l 
the entire length of the shell ; peristome acute, not re- 
flected, but thickened within by a heavy white callus, 
extending as high up as the carina of the body whorl ; on 
this callus are from 15 to 22 white, transverse laminae or 
ridges, not reaching the edge of the peristome, and not 
entering far into the aperture ; sometimes there is a sec- 
ond and even third series of these laminae visible within 
the aperture ; on the parietal wall are two elevated, white, 
entering folds, the upper one much more prominent ; the 
columella is covered with a shining, brown callosity, and 
furnished with one rather prominent fold, which com- 
mences at the termination of the peristome, and winds 
upwards into the interior of the shell; the interior whorls 
and axis are entirely absorbed. 

Diameter of a large specimen, 10 ; length, 19 diameters. 

Geographical Distribution. The only specimens I have 
seen were collected in Florida by Mr. Bartlett, more than 
ten years ago. 

It is a well known and very common shell in the West 
Indies. Referred also to Mexico by Pfeifter. 



MELAMPUS. 165 

Remarks. Figure 25 of plate 75 is a fac-simile of 
Orbigny's figure of Auricula ovala. It is a good represen- 
tation of our Florida shells. 

West Indian specimens are well known in cabinets. I 
know of no American specimens, with the exception of 
the few collected by Mr. Bartlett. 

PL 79, fig. 6, may represent a variety of this species. It 
is from Texas. 

MELAMPUS FLORIDIANUS SHUTTLEWORTH. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURE 30. 

T. imperforata, ventroso-fusiformis, tenuis, sublasvigata, griseo-fulva ; 
fasciis castaneis varie ornata ; spira regulariter conica, acuta ; sutura 
linearis ; anfr. 10 plani, superiores radiato-striati, ultimus f longitudinis 
formans, superne obsolete angulatus, versus basin vald attenuatus ; ap- 
ertura subverticalis, angusta, utrinque angulata ; plicae parietales 2 minu- 
t93, approximate ; plica columellaris valida, oblique ad basin producta ; 
perist. acutum, inargine dextro (in adultis) intus plicis albis transversis 
sub*qualibus rnunito, columellari brevi, calloso. (Pfr.) 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 



Auricula Floridiana SHUTTLEWORTH, MSS. 

JIdanipus Floridianus (Tralia) ADAMS, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, ii. (absq. desc.) 

PFEIFFER, Malak. Blatt. 1854; Mon. Auric. Viv. 36. 
Tifata Floridiana ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll, ii. 245, absq. desc. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell imperforate, ventricose, fusiform, thin, smooth, 
grayish, with varying chestnut bands ; spire regularly 
conic, acute ; suture linear ; whorls 10, flattened, the 
upper ones radiately striate, the last comprising of the 
length of the shell, obsoletely angulated above, and very 
much smaller at its base ; aperture subvertical, narrow, 
angular ; 2 parietal plicae, one strong, one on the columel- 
la, obliquely continued towards the base ; peristome acute, 
its right side in adult specimens armed with transverse, 



166 AURICULACEA. 

white, subequal folds, its columellar portion both short and 

callous. 

Length, 7| ; diameter, 4g ; aperture in length almost 5, 

in breadth 1^ millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Florida Keys. (Bartlett.) 
Remarks. PfeifFer compares it with Mel. cingulatus. 

It appears to me easily distinguished from that and the 

other species of the United States. 

MELAMPUS FLAVUS GMELIN. 

T. imperforata, obconica, lasvigata, castanea, fasciis 3 angnstis pallidis 
ornata ; spira brevis, convexo-conoidea, niucronata ; sutura linearis ; anfr. 
9-10, superi planiusculi, ultimus | long, fere a?quans, basi arcuato-crista- 
tus ; apertura subverticalis, angusta, basi angulata ; plica 1 parietalis 
profunda ; plica columellaris valida, subverticalis, ad basim porrecta ; 
perist. rectum, acutum, margine dextro fusco-labiato, intus albo-calloso, 
costis sub 10 transversis, brevibus ! munito, columellari calloso, dilatato. 
(Pfr.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

LISTER Hist. t. 834, fig. 60. 
FAVANNE Conch, t. 65, fig. H, i. 

Auricula Midce parva, &c. MART, and CHEMN. ii. p. 119, 126. t. 43, f. 445. 
Valuta n. 106, SCHRO'TER, Einl. i. p. 272. 
Valuta flava GMELIN, Syst. p. 3436, No. 5. 
DILLWYN, Cat. i. p. 506, n. 17. 
Voluta flammea y GMELIN, 1. c. 3435, n. i. 
Bulimus monile BRUGUIERE, Encycl. Meth. i. p. 338, n. 70. 
Melampa monile SCHWEIGGER, Handb. p. 739. 
Conovulus monile GOLDFUS, Hand. p. 657. 
Conovulus flavus ANTON, Verz. 1776. 
Auricula monile FERUSSAC, Podr. p. 105. 

LAMARK, Hist. vi. 2, p. 141 : ed. Desh. viii. p. 333. 

KUSTER in Chemn. ed. 2, Auric, p. 30, pi. iv. figs. 7-9. 
Auricula flava DESHAYES in Lam. viii. p. 33. 

PETIT, Journ. Conch, ii. 1851, p. 427. 
Auricula coniformis ORBIGNY, Cuba. 
Melampus monile LOWE, Zool. Journ. v. p. 292. 

BECK, Ind. p. 108. 
tildampus minutus j3 BECK, 1. c. 107. 
Mdampus flams ADAMS, Contr. p. 42, 186. 

POEY, Mem. i. 394. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Auric. Viv. 21. 



MELAMPUS. 167 




Mdampus torosa MORCH, Cat. Yold. p. 38. 

Jfelamjws momlis SHUTTLE WORTH, Diagn. No. 7, p. 162. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell imperforate, obconic, smooth, 
chestnut-colored, with 3 light, narrow 
bands ; spire short, convex conic ; suture 
slightly impressed ; whorls from 9 to 10, 
the upper ones flattened, the last about 
equalling f of the length of the shell, arcuately ridged 
below ; aperture subvertical, narrow, angulated below ; 
one deep parietal fold, one subvertical, stout columellar 
fold, extended towards the base ; peristome straight, acute, 
its outer margin reddish, thickened with white within and 
furnished with 10 short, transverse ribs, its columellar por- 
tion expanding and callous. 

Length, 12 ; breadth, 8^ ; length of aperture, 9| ; breadth 
at the middle, 3 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Collected in Florida by Mr. 
Bartlett. 

Remarks. This species is a well known inhabitant of 
the West Indian Islands, but whether its presence in 
Florida is accidental or not, I cannot say. It is readily 
distinguished from the other Florida species. 

The synonymy is Pfeiffer's. 



MELA3IPUS OBLIQUUS SAY. 

Obconic, reddish brown, rather thick ; spire very little elevated ; 
whorls eight or nine, wrinkled across ; labiura with two very dis- 
tinct teeth, and an intermediate and equidistant slight obtuse prom- 
inence ; inferior tooth very oblique, terminating at the base ; labrum 
with about eight teeth or striae, which terminate on the margin ; 
base of the aperture a little contracted by the basal tooth. 



168 AURICULACEA. 

Length more than seven twentieths of an inch. I am indebted 
to Mr. Stephen Elliott for this species, who obtained it on the coast 
of South Carolina. It is closely allied to Bulimus monile Brug., 
but it has no appearance of bands, which distinguish that shell. In 
the collection of the Academy are specimens from the West Indies. 
(Say.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Melampus obliquus SAY, Journal Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. vol. ii. p. 377, (Dec. 1822); 

]>inn. ed. p. 27. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Auric. Viv. p. 30. 
Auricula obliqua DE!VAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 58. 
Melampus BECK, absq. desc. 

Remarks. It is not now known what shell Say had in 
view when the above description was written. No au- 
thentic specimen is preserved, and no author has seen any 
shell from that locality answering to the characters laid 
down. DeKay mentions it among the extra-limital spe- 
cies in his report, his words being nearly a repetition of 
Say's. Pfeiffer repeats Say's words, and suggests the 
identity of the species with Melampus coffea. Say being 
familiar with that shell (M. coniformis, vid. ed. Binn. 
p. 85), it seems hardly probable he would have described 
a variety of it. 

The question must remain undecided until we are bet- 
ter acquainted with the species of the South Carolina 
coast. 

MELAMPUS PUSILLTJS GMELIN. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURE 29. 

Testa imperforata, elongato-ovata, solida, nitens, lasvigata, lineis micro- 
scopicis volventibus notata ; rufa, fasciis indistinctis magis candidis cincta ; 
sutura non valde impressa ; spira elongato-conica, apex nigra, acuta, 
nitens ; anfr. 6-7, superi planiusculi, ultimus obtuse angulatus, ad basin 
reo-ulariter attenuatus, ^-f testte long, aaquaus ; apertura subverticalis, 
supra angusta, infra rapide dilatans, testte long. i|. asquans ; perist sim- 
plex, aeutum, intus callosura et plicam obtusam intus positam gererfs, 
marline basali appresso et in plicam columellarem intranteui ascendente ; 



MELAMPUS. 169 

paries et columella callo nitente induta ; denies parietales duo, intrantes 
albidi, infero magiori ; septas internae absorptas. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Auricula Jfidce parva fusca unicolor MARTINI and CHEMNITZ, vol. ii. p. 119, t. 43, 

f. 446. 

FAVANNE, t. 65, f. H. 4, (teste Pfr.) 
Valuta n. 108 SCHKOTER, Einl. i. p. 273. 
Voluta pusitta GMELIN, Syst. p. 3436, (teste Pfr.) 
DILLWYN, Cat. i. p. 507. 
WOOD, Index, t. 19, fig. 20. 

Voluta triplicata DONOVAN, Brit. Shells, vol. v. pi. 138, (1808). 
MONTAGU, Test. Brit. Suppl. p. 99. 
DILLWYN, Cat. p. 507. 
WOOD, Ind. pi. 19, f. 19. 

Bulimus ovulus BRUGUIERE, Encycl. Meth. i. p. 339. 
Jfelampa ovulum SCHWEIGGER, Handb. p. 739, (teste Pfr.) 
Auricula ovula ( Conovula) FERUSSAC, Tabl. Syst. p. 108, (absq. desc.) 
Auricula nitens LAMARK, An. s. Vert. vol. vi. 2, p. 141. 

DESHAYES in Lam. vol. viii. p. 332; ed. 3, vol. iii. p. 387. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, Auric, p. 18, pi. ii. f. 11-13. 
Auricula pusilla DESHAYES in Lam. vol. viii. p. 332. 

JAY, Cat. (absq. desc.) p. 265. 

Auricula leucodonta NUTTALL, mss. teste H. et A. ADAMS. 
Ckmovulus nitens VOIGHT in Cuv. Thierr. III. p. 112, (teste Pfr.) 
Conovulus pusillus ANTON, Verz. p. 48. 

FORBES and HANLEY, Brit. Moll. vol. iv., p. 197, (absq. desc.) 
Melampus pusillus C. B. ADAMS, Contr. Conch, p. 42, 186, (absq. desc.) 
PFEIFFER, Monog. Auric. Viv. p. 48. 
POEY, Mem. i. p 394, (absq. desc.) 
SHUTTLE WORTH, absq. desc. 
Pythia ovulum BECK. Ind. p. 104, (teste Pfr. ) 
Pythia triplicata BECK, Ind. p. 104, (teste Pfr.) 
Tralia pusilla GRAY in Turt. Man. p. 21, (absq. desc.) 

H. et A. ADAMS, Gen. Eec. Moll. vol. ii. (Sept. 1855,) p. 244, pi. 82, 

f. 8. 
Tralia ovulum MORCH, Cat. Yold. p. 38, (teste Pfr.) absq. desc. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell imperforate, lengthened ovate, solid, shining, 
smooth, marked with microscopic revolving lines, most 
easily detected on the spire ; reddish-brown, with lighter, 
hardly perceptible revolving bands ; suture moderate, less 
ragged than in the other species ; spire elongate-conic ; 

22 



170 AURICULACEA. 

apex acute, shining, black; whorls 6-7, the upper ones 
flattened, the body whorl obtusely carinated, regularly 
decreasing in diameter towards the base, and equaling 
about |f the length of the shell ; aperture subvertical, nar- 
row, rapidly widening towards its base, and equalling in 
length about | of the entire shell ; peristome simple, acute, 
within thickened by callus, and furnished with a rather 
blunt, short, transverse, not very prominent lamina ; the 
basal termination of the peristome is appressed to the 
shell, and imperceptibly terminates in a columellar lamina 
which ascends and winds into the aperture ; the columella 
and parietal wall are covered with a shining callus ; there 
are two parietal teeth, which are white, and enter into the 
aperture of the shell, the lower one being much the small- 
er. Internal septae absorbed. 

Greatest diameter, 5; length, 11 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. The only American speci- 
mens I have seen are in my collection. 1 detected them 

/ 

among minute marine shells and sand, collected in Florida 
by Mr. Bartlett. 

Remarks. This species is well known in cabinets by 
specimens from the West Indian Islands, in several of 
which it exists. Pfeiffer also refers it to the Sandwich 
Islands. 

The shell resembles an Oliva. It is readily distinguished 
by its polished, mahogany-colored shell. It varies less 
than most of the Melampi. 

MELAMPUS REDFIELDI PFEIFFER. 

T. subrimata, ovata, solidula, striatula, nitidula, albida, fasciis variis 
spadiceis plerumque interrupts subtessellata ; spira brevis, convexo- 
eonoidea, acuta ; sutura vix impressa ; anfr. 9-10, planiusculi, ultirnus 
| longitudinis fere formans, superne obsolete angulatus, basi attenuatus . 
apertura vix obliqua, oblonga, supra basin subdilatata ; plicae parietales 
2, supera major, transversa, altera approximata, dentiformis ; plica colu- 
raellaris acuta, arcuatirn in marginem basalem continuata; perist. simplex, 



MELAMPUS. 171 

margin e dextro superne subsinuato, turn fere stricto, intus serie profunda 
plicularum brevium, confertissimarum munito, columellari calloso, albo? 
subappresso. Long. 12, diam. max. 7 mill. Ap. 10 mill, longa, medio 2j 
lata. (Pfr.) 

Remarks. This species is inserted with some doubt 
among the American Melampi. Some immature speci- 
mens found in Florida cannot be referred to any of the 
other species I have enumerated. Having sent them to 
Mr. Redfield, he writes me that they do not in any way 
differ from immature specimens of Melampus Redfieldi, 
which he has from Bermuda. 

The above description is from the Monograph of Auri- 
culacea, p. 35. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Melampus borealis Conrad, I have referred to Alexia myosotis. 
Melampus denticidatus Stimpson, is also identical with Alexia 
myosotis. 

SUBFAMILY AUR1CULEA. 

Animal terrestrial, living in moist localities ; shell with 
an expanded or thickened peristome. (Pfr.) 

It forms the subfamily Ellobiince of Adams's Genera. 
The American genera are as follows : 

GENUS AURICULA LAMARK. 

No species of this genus, as restricted by Pfeiffer, is 
found in the United States. The following list contains 
all the species described as Auriculce, and the position in 
which they are now classed. 

Auricula Udentata Gld., &c. is the same as Melampus. 
A. biplicata Desk, is the same as Melampus bidentatus. 
A. cingulata Pf. &c. is the same as Melampus cingulatus. 
A. conifonnis Fer. is the same as Melampus coffea. 
A. cornea Desh. is the same as Melampus bidentatus. 



172 AURICULACEA. 

A. denticulata Gld., DeK. is the same as Alexia myosotis. 

A. Floridianus Shutt. is the same as Melampus Floridianus. 

A. Jaumei Mittre is the same as Melampus bidentatus. 

A. nitens Lam. is the same as Melampus pusillus. 

A. oUiqua DeK. is the same as Melampus obliquus. 

A. oliva Orb. is the same as Melampus cingulatus. 

A. pusilla Desh. is the same as Melampus pusillus. 

A. Sayii Kiister is the same as Leuconia Sayii. 

A. stenostoma Ktister is the same as Melampus cingulatus. 

GENUS ALEXIA LEACH. 

Shell oblong-ovate, thin, spire pointed; last whorl large, 
rounded at base ; aperture rather broad, oval, acuminat- 
ing ; parietal wall furnished with from 1 to 5 tuberculous 
laminae ; columellar fold oblique ; peristome expanded, 
armed with teeth, or thickened within. (Pfr.) 

The species of this genus are truly terrestrial, though 
many authors consider them marine. 

We have but one species, A. myosotis. The figure of its 
animal given on pi. 79, fig. 16, will be found to differ some- 
what from the figure given in Adams's Genera, which I 
have copied on pi. 75, fig. 22. 

ALEXIA MYOSOTIS DRAPARNAUD. 

i 

PLATE LXXV. FIGURE 33. PLATE LXXIX. FIGURE 16. 

T. minute perforata, elongato-ovata, tenuis, lasvigata, nitens ; cornea 
linea rufa suturalis cincta; spira producta, apice acuta ; sutura impressa; 
anfr. 78, superi convexiusculi, ultimus elliptico-ovatus A longitudinis 
testas aequans; apertura ovata, subverticalis, *. long, testae aequans; perist. 
tenue, acutum, niargine dextro interdum intus armato, basali, appresso, 
reflexiusculo, in plicam columellarem intrantem ascendente ; paries 
aperturalis plicis duobis albis armata, supera parvula, altera erecta, acuta, 
transversim intrante. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 



Auricula myosotis DRAPARNAUD, c. 

Auricula denticulata GOULD, Invert, of Mass. p. 199, fig. 129, (excl. Valuta denti- 
culata Mont, et syn. suis.) nee MONTFORT. 



ALEXIA. 173 

Auricula denticulate DE!VAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 58. pi. v. figs. 91, 93, (excl. Valuta 

denticulata Mont. et. syn.) nee MOXTFORT. 
Melampus denticulatus STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. p. 52, (absq. desc.) excl. syn. 

Mont. 

Jfelampus borealis COXRAD, Am. Journ. Sc. vol. xxiii. p. 345, (1833). 
Akxia myosotis H. et A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll. vol. 2, p. 241, (Sept. 1855,) 

absq. desc. 
PFEIFFER, Mou. Auric. Viv. p. 148. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal short, about one half the length of the shell, 
dirty white, darker on the head and tentacles ; eyes black, 
placed at the inner base of the feelers ; feelers quite short, 
wrinkled, bulbous at tip, sufficiently dark to be visible 
through the thin shell when the animal withdraws itself; 
head continued beyond the tentaculae into an obtuse, 
short, bilobed snout; the shell is carried horizontally on 
the animal's back ; the obtusely pointed posterior termi- 
nation of the foot is just visible beyond the shell ; the 
animal is sluggish in its movements. See plate. 

Shell elongate-oval, thin, semi-transparent, smooth and 
shining ; dark horn-color, with a narrow reddish sutural 
line ; spire produced with an acute apex ; suture distinctly 
impressed ; whorls from 7 to 8, the upper ones rather con- 
vex, the last one elliptically ovate, equalling f of the shell's 
length ; aperture subvertical, about | the length of the shell ; 
peristome thin, sharp, sometimes furnished with tooth-like 
folds on its inner side ; its basal termination appressed to 
the shell, slightly reflected over a minute perforation, and 
turning upwards till it blends with the columellar fold, 
which winds into the aperture ; the parietal wall is fur- 
nished with a white, transverse, thin, and sharp denticle, 
and a second smaller, much less prominent one, placed 
above it. 

Greatest diameter 4, length 8 millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found in Massachusetts 
Bay, (Gould, Stimpson, Tufts) ; New York harbor, (De- 



174 AURICULACEA. 

Kay); Rhode Island, (Conrad?) It is also a well-known 
inhabitant of parts of the coasts of England, France, 
Spain, &c. 

Remarks. I have placed this shell in this genus on the 
authority of Pfeiffer and of Adams Genera. It has been 
placed in many different genera by European authors. 
In America it has been considered an Auricula by Gould 
and others, until Stimpson classed it among the Melampi. 
From the exterior of the animal there appears no difference 
between it and Me/ampus bidentatus. It does not even 
agree with the animal of Alexia, given by Adams in the 
Genera of Recent Mollusca, which I have copied on pi. 
75, fig. 22. This figure represents the true Alexia den- 
ticulata Montfort, with which Gould confounds this spe- 
cies. The shell is also quite distinct. It is, however, 
united to Alexia myosotis by Forbes and Hanley, in 
their work on British Mollusca. Pfeiffer considers them 
distinct. 

It is probably an imported species, as Stimpson remarks, 
(1. c.,) being found only in the Atlantic seaports. At Bos- 
ton it is common on the piers of the wharves in the harbor. 
It is also found on isolated stones which are immersed by 
the rising tide at least four hours out of the twelve. When 
placed in fresh water it becomes benumbed and dies. 

There can be no doubt of M. borealis Conrad being 
identical with this species. Conrad's description is given 
below, as is also a description of it found among Say's 
manuscripts, but never published. 

DeKay also says : 

The borealis of Jay's Cat., of an olive-green color, an elevated 
apex, and with slightly impressed sutures, with a thin transverse 
tooth above and a small sinous tooth beneath, I suppose to be a 
young variety of the above described species, (A. myosotis). 

MELAMPUS TURRITUS. Ovate-acute, polished, dull whitish; spire 
prominent, tapering, of eight whorls ; aperture rather wide, not longer 



BLAUNERIA. 175 

than the spire ; labium two-toothed ; lower tooth small ; labrum without 
teeth. Length one fifth of an inch. Inhabits Rhode Island. 

This species is remarkable for the elevation of its spire, and it is the 
smallest species I have seen, and was presented to me by Dr. Griffith. 
(Say)- 

MELAMPUS BOREALIS. Shell ovate-acute, elongated ; pale horn- 
color, with darker longitudinal bands ; whorls 6 or 7, with a revolving 
impressed line below the suture ; spire elevated, conical ; columella 
with three distant and distinct plaits, the middle one most prominent ; 
aperture obovate-acute. Length, about one fourth of an inch. 

This small species of Melampus has been found sparingly on the coast 
of Rhode Island, by Lieut. Brown of Newport. It is similar in form to a 
Sulimus, and is very unlike the common species with which it associates. 
(Conrad). 

GENUS BLAUNERIA SHUTTLEWORTH. 

Shell imperforate. oblongly turreted, thin ; aperture narrow, elon- 
gated ; parietal wall with one fold near the columella, which is subtrun- 
cated ; peristorne simple, not reflected. 



This genus was proposed for the following species. Its 
habits and the characteristics of the animal remove it from 
Achatina and Oleacina^ where it was formerly placed. 

BLAUXERIA PELLUCIDA PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LIU. FIGURE 2. 

Testa sinistrorsa, ovata, elongata, hyalina, polita, dilute cornea ; spirit 
obtusa, anfractibus ad septem convexiusculis ; sutura lineari ; apertura 
angusta, labro acuto ; columella brevi, lamella intus decurrente superne 
instructa. (Gld.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Achatina pellucida PFEIFFER, in Wiegm. Archiv. 1840, i. 252. 

GOULD in Binn. Terr. Moll. ii. 294. 

Tornatelllna Cubensis PFEIFFER, Symb. ii. 130; Monog. Helic. Viv. ii. 391. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, Pupa. p. 151, pi. xviii. figs. 16, 17. 
Blauneria pdludda PFEIFFER, Malak. Bl. 1854; Mou. Auric. Viv. 153. 
Odostomia? Cubensis POEY, Mem i. 394. 
Oleacina Cubensis ADAMS, Gen. ii. 106, absq. clesc. 



176 AURICULACEA. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell sinistral, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, pellucid, 
highly polished and glistening. Whorls seven, very ob- 
lique, scarcely convex, the last one somewhat ventricose 
towards the base, about two thirds the length of the shell. 
Aperture narrow ovate, acutely prolonged posteriorly ; lip 
simple ; turning up the columella it becomes thickened, 
and winds into the aperture in the form of a tooth-like 
lamella. 

Length one tenth of an inch ; breadth one thirtieth of 
an inch. 

Geographical Distribution. Found in Florida, among 
small shells drifted in the sand. 

Dr. Foreman collected a few specimens in a garden of 
Washington city. He believes them to have been brought 
on plants from Charleston, S. C. 

It has been detected in Cuba, Jamaica, and Porto Rico, 
and has been introduced into England. 

Remarks. Perhaps no shell has rejoiced in more 
numerous and longer names, both generic and specific, 
than this minute one. Nor has the true station of any 
one been more difficult to decide. It is now, however, 
acknowledged to be air-breathing, and amphibious in its 
habits. 

Binney is the only American author who mentions its 
existence in this country. He places it under Achatina. 
Gould, in Terr. Moll., leaves it in that genus provisionally, 
mentioning the doubt existing concerning it. 

Shuttleworth in letters to Bland adds to the synonymy. 

Valuta lieterodita MONT., LASKEY. 

Actceon lieterodita FLEMING. 

Auricula lieterodita THORPE. 

Tomatella ? heteroclita FORBES & HANLEY. 



LEUCONIA. 177 

Should he be correct, the species would stand, by the 
rule of priority, as Blatmeria heteroclita ( Valuta) Mont. 

This species is readily distinguished among the fine 
sand, shells, &c., washed ashore in Florida, by its bright, 
shining surface, and reversed form. All the specimens I 
have seen were collected by. Mr. Bartlett more than ten 
years ago, excepting those found by Dr. Foreman. 

GENUS LEUCONIA GRAY. 

The following species is doubtfully referred to this 
genus by Kiister and Pfeiffer. But, as observed in the 
remarks, it is very doubtful whether the genus exists at all 
in this country. 

LEUCONIA (?) SAYII, KUSTER. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURE 34. 

A. testa minima, conico-ovata, nitida, cornea, striata ; spira acuta, late 
couica, anfr. 6 convexiusculis ; apertura oblonga, columella biplicata. 

Eine der kleinsten Arten. Das Gehause ist diinnwandig, stark 
durclischeinend, regelmassig gestreift, seidenglanzend, hornfarben ; 
das Gewinde hoch, breit kegelformig, im Allgemeinen in der Mitte 
convex, der Wirbel fein zugespitzt, die einzelnen Windungen sind 
niedrig, flachgewolbt, durch eine etwas vertiefte Naht vereinigt. 
Haupwindung ziemlich gross, bauchig, unten verschmalert ; Miin- 
dung langlich, zugespitzt, nach unten erweitert ; Mundsaum dicht 
anliegend, geschweift absteigend, geradeaus, stumpf zugescharft ; 
Spindelsaule mit geringem Umschlag und zwei weissen Falten, die 
obere ist zahnartig zugescharft, die untere tritt schief heraus und 
geht unmittelbar in den Rand des Mundsaums iiber. Zuweilen 
bemerkt man oberhalb noch eine kleine faltenartige Schwiele, 
jedoch nur bei ganz alten Exemplaren. Hohe 2 //x , Breite 



Aufenthalt : in den vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Auricula Sayii KUSTER, in Chemnitz, ed. 2, Auric, p. 42, pi. vi. figs. 14, 15. 
Leuconia Sayii H. et A. ADAMS, Gen. Kec. Moll. vol. ii. p. 248, 1855, (absq. 

desc.) 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Auric. Viv. p. 157. 
23 



178 AURICULACEA. 

Remarks. The above is Kuster's description. The 
figure to which I refer is a fac-simile of one of his. This 
is the only information I have been able to obtain with 
regard to the species. It has not been described by any 
other author but Pfeiffer, who merely quotes the above 
description, not having ever seen the shell. 

Kuster's figure represents no known American shell ; 
there exists, however, a strong resemblance between it 
and his figure of Alexia myosotis. His original specimen 
may have been a variety of that species. 

PfeifFer compares the species with Melampus infrequens 
Ad. 

GENUS CARYCHIUM MULLER. 

Shell pupa-shaped, very thin, transparent, with but few whorls ; aper- 
ture suboval ; with one dentiform columellar fold, sometimes obsolete ; 
parietal wall with 1 or 2 teeth ; peristome expanded, terminations not 
approximating, the right hand one with one internal tooth. (Pfr.) 

See the remarks under the following species. 

CARYCHIUM EXIGUUM SAY. 

PLATE LIII. FIGURE 1. 

C. testa minutissima, alba, fusiformi, sub-aeuminata ; anfractibus quin- 
que vel sex, obliquis, convexis ; apertura obliqua ; columella dente albo 
ornata ; labro albo, reflexo. 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Pupa exigua SAY, Journ. Acad. ii. 375; ed. Binn. p. 26. 

GOULD, Boston Journ. iii. 398, pi. 3, f. 20. Invertebrata, 191, 

f. 120. 

DEKAY, New York Keport, 31 ; Fauna, 49, pi. iv. fig. 46. 
ADAMS, Vermont Mollusca, 8. 
Bulimus exiguus BINNEY, ii. 286. 
Carychium exiguum GOULD, in Terr. Moll. ii. 286. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 61, pi. i. figs. 13, 14. 
STIMPSON, Shells of N. E. p. 52, (absq. desc.) 
FRAUENFELD, 1847, Akad. der Wiss. xix. p. 79; Zool. Bot. 

Wien, iv. p. 10, pi. 1, fig. 1. 
BOUUGIGNAT, Mag. Zool. 1857, p. 209. 
Carychium exile H. C. LEA, Am. Journ. 42, 109, pi. i. fig. 5. 

TROSCHEL, Ar. f. Nat. 1843; ii. 128. 
Carychium existelium BOURGIGNAT, 1. c. p. 220. 
Carycliium euphceum BOURGIGNAT, 1. c. p. 221. 



CARYCHIUM. 179 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal colorless ; tentaculse stout, hyaline, one third 
the length of the foot, the upper pair alone developed. 
The foot is short, thick, distinctly divided into two seg- 
ments, the anterior of which is bilobed, and projects, when 
the animal is in motion, considerably in advance of the 
head. Eyes oval, situated on the back, near the base of 
the tentacles. Its motions are very sluggish. It carries 
the shell directed horizontally ; the shell is so transparent 
that the viscera of the animal may be seen through it. 
(Compare the figures of the animal on plate 53.) 

Shell elongated, tapering at both ends, white, trans- 
lucent, shining ; apex rather obtuse ; whorls five to six, 
convex, very oblique, with transverse striae ; suture distinct, 
impressed ; aperture obliquely oval, white, with a promi- 
nent plait on the columellar margin, about midway be- 
tween the extremities of the lip, and a slightly prominent 
fold near the junction of the lip with the umbilical extrem- 
ity of the shell ; lip thick, reflected, flattened ; umbilicus 
perforated. 

Length, one fifteenth ; breadth, one fortieth of an inch. 

Geographical Distribution. Common in all the Northern 
and Middle States (Binney), in Ohio (Kirtland, Anthony, 
Higgins), and Arkansas (Gould), New York (DeKay, 
Lewis), Michigan (Winchel), Massachusetts (Gould, &c.), 
Connecticut (Linsley), Maine (Mighels), Pennsylvania 
(H. C. Lea), Texas (Roemer). 

Remarks. The extreme minuteness of this shell has 
doubtless prevented its being noticed in many localities 
where it exists. It probably inhabits a very wide range 
of territory. The plane of the aperture is not so nearly 
parallel with the axis as in Bulimus subula. It has been 
said to resemble Carychium minimum of Miiller, but neither 
the figure nor description, as given by Draparnaud, corre- 
spond with our shell. 



180 AURICULACEA. 

It is found under stones and fragments of wood, and 
especially among moss, in damp places. Though found 
far removed from the influence of the sea over a wide 
extent of country in the interior, it still possesses a fond- 
ness for the sea in common with the other species of the 
family. Around Boston they are found at or below the 
surface in swamps, growing among mosses. 

It is the only species of this family inhabiting the inte- 
rior. 

This minute shell is well known in American cabinets 
as a Pupa. Say described it as such in 1822, though he 
mentions the probability of its being a Carychium. It 
has been described since that time as a Pupa by Gould, 
DeKay, and Adams, and catalogued among the species of 
the same genus by all the American writers who have 
mentioned it, until 1851, when its correct position was 
pointed out by Stimpson and Gould. The former places 
it in his family of Melampidce. The latter thus writes : 

" This shell should be removed to another family, under 
the name of Carychium exiguum. Besides the peculiar 
structure of the shell, and the form of its aperture, the 
position of the eyes of the animal plainly remove it from 
the true Helicidce, and associate it with the Auriculidce. 
Its habits, and the characters of the shell, also indicate the 
same relation." 

Dr. Binney, in 1843, (Boston Journal, p. 106,) considers 
it a Pupa. In his great work he places it under Buli- 
mus. 

Notwithstanding its distinct generic peculiarities hav- 
ing been pointed out in 1851, we find the shell considered 
as a Pupa in several American catalogues as late even as 
1857 ; (vid. Boston Proc. vi. p. 128.) 

In 1852, Jay removed it from Pupa to Carychium; (Cat. 
p. 263.) 

In Europe, we find its true position pointed out by 



CARYCHIUM. 181 

Pfeiffer as early as 1841, and adhered to by subsequent 
writers. 

I have added to the synonymy of this species Carychium 
exile H. C. Lea, a shell I have never seen. Dr. Gould 
has expressed the same opinion; (Bost. Proc. i. p. 61.) 
Though there seems to me no room for doubt of the just- 
ness of this decision, I add the description of Mr. Lea, as 
well as a somewhat reduced copy of his figure (pi. 75, 
fig. 23) of the aperture. 

I add also a copy of M. Bourgignat's description of C. 
existelium and C. euphceum. Persons may thus judge for 
themselves whether my decision is correct. I have not 
seen authentic specimens. 

CARYCHIUM EXILE (pi. 1, fig. 5). C. testa ovato-conica, valde 
elevata, subperforata, diaphana, albida, longitudinaliter striata ; 
spira obtusa ; anfractibus senis, convexis ; suturis impressis ; aper- 
tura elliptica, Integra, dentibus tribus ; labio valde reflexo. 

Shell ovately conical, much elevated, subperforate, diaphanous, 
whitish, longitudinally striate ; spire obtuse ; whorls six, convex ; 
sutures impressed ; mouth elliptical, entire, with three teeth ; lip 
much reflexed. Length, .075 ; breadth, .025 of an inch. 

Hab. Under dead leaves and mould, on the Wissakiccon Creek, 
near Philadelphia. Cabinet of I. Lea. 

Remarks. This beautiful little shell bears a strong resemblance 
to the Pupa exigua of Say, and it is with some doubt that I pro- 
pose it. The chief points in which it differs from that shell are the 
following. The lip is continuous round the mouth, and not inter- 
rupted by the last whorl, as is the case with the Pupa, thus being 
a true Carychium ; the lip is flattened, the number of whorls is 
greater, there is a tooth on the outer lip, the size is smaller, and 
the shape more elongated. It also nearly approaches the Ca- 
rychium minimum Leach, a European shell, but may be easily 
distinguished by its striae, shape, number of whorls, perforation and 
teeth. The tooth on the outer lip is very variable, being sometimes 
almost obsolete, and sometimes larger than those on the inner one. 
Of the two teeth on the inner lip, one is placed at the middle, and 



182 AURICULACEA. 

the other very near the base of the mouth, and so far in as to be 
almost invisible on a front view. The mouth is .02 of an inch in 
length. It appears to be the only true Carychium yet found in the 
United States, its small perforation, hardly amounting to an umbili- 
cus, not being sufficient to separate it from that genus. In its 
shape and mouth it strongly resembles the genus ClausiKa, but it 
wants the clausum, the distinctive mark of that curious and inter- 
esting genus. I have only met with it on the Wissahiccon, where 
it does not seem to be very common. 

CARYCHIUM EXISTELIUM. Testa vix rimata, elongato-turrita, 
hyalina, lasvi, vel vix striatula; spira elongata, acutiuscula; anfr. 
6 convexis ; ultimo -| longitudinis gequante ; apertura parum ob- 
liqua, ovata, paululum parvula ; pariete aperturali prope columel- 
lam dente minutissimo munito ; peristomate reflexo ; margine ex- 
terno paululum intus inflexo. 

Coquille turriculee, tres-allongee, hyaline, lisse ou a peine striee, 
et munie d'une fente ombilicale peu sensible. Spire allongee, a 
sommet aigue. Six tours tres-convexes, dont le dernier egale le tiers 
de la longueur totale. Ouverture peu oblique, ovale, proportionelle- 
ment petite, ornee seulement d'une seule denticulation peu sail- 
lante situee pres de la columelle. Peris tome reflechi. Bord ex- 
terieur un peu inflechi en dedans. 

Long. 2^- mill. ; diam. f mill. 

Habite les Etats-Ums d'Arnerique. Nous ne connaissons point 
la localite precise ou a ete recueilli ce Mollusque. 

Le Carychium existelium se distingue du Carychium exiguum, 
avec laquelle il peut etre assimile, par sa taille plus elancee, plus 
grele ; par sa bouche moins dilatee et munie d'une seule denticula- 
tion situee sur la paroi aperturale, vers 1'insertion de la columelle ; 
par sa columelle lisse ; par sa suture plus prononcee ; par son der- 
nier tour de spire, qui egale le tiers de la longueur et qui ne le 
depasse point comme dans Vexiguum. 

CARTCHIUM EUPH^ECM. Testa vix rimata, elongato-turrita, hya- 
lina, lasvi ; spira acuminato-acutiuscula ; anfr. 5 convexiusculis ; 
ultimo longitudinis superante ; apertura parum obliqua, oblonga ; 
pariete aperturali denticulo mediano adornato ; peristomate leviter 
labiato, reflexo ; margine externo intus inflexo. 

Coquille allongee, turriculee, hyaline, lisse, a peine pourvue d'une 



PNEUMONOPOMA. 183 

fente ombilicale. Spire acuminee, aigue. Cinq tours un peu con- 
vexes, clont le dernier surpasse le tiers de la longueur totale. Ouver- 
ture peu oblique, oblongue ; paroi aperturale munie, vers le milieu? 
d'une seule denticulation assez forte. Peristome legerement borde 
et assez reflechi. Bord exte"rieur inflechi en dedans. 

Long. If de mill. ; diam. f mill. 

Habite les Etats-Unis d'Amerique. 

Le Carychium euphceum peut etre rapproche des Carychium ex- 
istelium et exiguum. 

1. On le distinguera de Yexistelium a sa taille plus faible, a sa 
spire plus aigue, a son ouverture proportionellement plus dilatee, a 
sa paroi aperturale ornee, vers son milieu, d'une petite denticula- 
tion ; a son peristome plus reflechi et plus epaissi, etc. ; enfin a ses 
cinq tours de spire, etc. etc. 

2. On le separera de Vexiguum a sa taille egalement plus faible, 
a son ouverture munie seulement d'une seule denticulation, tandis 
que celle de Vexiguum en possede deux, a son peristome plus epaissi, 
plus reflechi, a sa spire plus aigue, etc. etc. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Carychium armigera, contracta, and rupicola of Say (1. c.) are now 
ascertained to be true Pupce, as he suggested they might be ; as 
is also Carychium corticaria Ferussac, (Tabl. Syst.) 

PNE UMONOP OMA. 

The above named order includes all the following fami- 
lies. The animals which compose it are distinguished 
from those of the preceding families of Limacea^ Helicea, 
and Auriculacea, by the presence of an operculum, which 
is affixed to the foot and covers the aperture of the shell 
when they are withdrawn in it. They are terrestrial, 
breathing air by means of organs analogous to lungs. 
They are also unisexual, and have but two contractile 
instead of retractile tentacles, at the base of which are 
situated two eyes. The mantle is sometimes, though not 
always, free. 



181 ACICULACEA. 

This order is made well known by the genera Cyclos- 
toma and Helicina. It contains many other foreign gen- 
era, but these two and Truncatella are the only ones in- 
habiting the United States. 

It is divided by Pfeiffer into two suborders : Opisoph- 
thalma and Ectophthalma, respectively characterized by the 
eyes being placed behind the base of the tentacles, and at 
their external base. The 

SUBOEDER OPISOPHTHALMA 

is characterized as above, and contains one family only, the 
FAMILY ACICULACEA. 

In addition to the characters of the order, it has a thin 
spiral operculum and few whorls. It contains the Euro- 
pean genus Acicula, and the genus Geomelania, of Jamaica, 
as well as Truncatella^ which last alone inhabits the United 
States. 

GENUS TRUNCATELLA Risso. 

Shell imperforate, but with an umbilical groove, cylin- 
drical, turretted, usually pellucid and smooth, of a reddish 
horn-color ; the upper whorls are also truncated in the 
adult, the remaining ones are usually gradually increasing 
in size, and covered with more or less strongly developed 
ribs. The peristome is simple or double, sometimes re- 
flected ; the base is generally furnished with a prominent 
carina or ridge, formed by the peristome. The operculum 
is horny, hardly spiral, with a basal nucleus. 

Animal with a small foot, against the end of which 
rests the operculum when the animal is withdrawn ; the 
tentacles are short, acute ; the snout is extended beyond 
them as much as the whole length of the animal. The 
shell is carried horizontally. The other characteristics of 
the genus are the same as those of the order and suborder. 
The animal lives in close proximity to the sea. 



TRUNCATELLA. 185 

A figure of the animal as it appears while in motion is 
given on pi. 75, fig. 11, taken from Adams's Genera of 
Recent Mollusca. It represents a species not found in 
our country. 

The animal walks by contracting the space between its 
lips and foot, like the geometric caterpillars. 

Remarks. This genus has been but little understood by 
authors until the most recent investigations have proved 
it to belong to the same group as Helicina, Cyclostoma, &c. 
It has formerly been referred to the following genera : 
Truncatula, Fidelis, Choristoma, Erpetometra, Helix, Turbo, 
Cyclostoma, Acmea, Paludina, Pyramidis, Rissoa, and 
Turritella. A full description of it will be found in the 
works of Pfeiffer referred to. 

At first sight it seems almost impossible to admit of 
more than one species among the shells I have received 
from Florida. However well marked may be some indi- 
viduals, when separately compared, there seem to be 
many others forming a chain of connection between them. 
I have, however, sent to Messrs. PfeifFer and Poey our 
Florida specimens, and have received from them the de- 
cisions regarding their identity which I give below. 

In all cases I have given Pfeiffer's Latin description of 
the species, and the figure of it to which he refers. 

TRUNCATELLA CARIB^ENSIS SOWERBY. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURES 2, 4. 

T. subrirnata, subcylindrica, parum attenuata, solidula, rubella, suc- 
cinea vel flavida, subtiliter costulata ; costulis subrectis, saepe in medio 
anfractuum evanescentibus ; sutura Isevis ; anfr. superst. 3-4, sensim ao 
orescentes, parum convexi, ultimus saepe lievigatus, basi breviter carinato- 
cristatus; apertura subverdcalis, ovali-elliptiea, superne angulata ; perist. 
continuum, rectum, ad anfractum penultimum et in angulo insertiouis 
incrassatum. ( Pfr.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Truncatella Caribxensis SCMVERBY, MSS. 

24 



186 ACICULACEA. 



TritncateUa Cnribasensis REEVE, Conch. Syst. 11, t. 182, fig. 7. 

PFEIFFEK in Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1846, p. 182; Mon. Auric. 

Viv. ii. 185; Mon. Phan. Viv. ii. p. 7. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2; Auric, p. 9, pi. i. figs. 35, 36; pi. ii. 

fig. 22 ; non pi. ii. figs. 2-4. 
Truncatella Gouldii ADAMS, ined. 
Truncatella succinea ADAMS, Proc. Bost. Soc. 1845, p. 12. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell subperforated or grooved, subcylindrical, rather 
solid, in its truncated state but slightly decreasing in size 
towards the apex, reddish, or dark amber-colored, with 
delicate ribs, which are but little curved, and often hardly 
perceptible on the middle of the whorls ; suture slight ; 
whorls not truncated, three or four, distinctly increasing in 
size, equally convex, the last often smooth, slightly carinat- 
ed on its base ; aperture subvertical, ovally elliptic, angu- 
lar above ; peristome continuous, straight, thickened at its 
connection with the penultimate whorl. 

Length, 78 ; diameter, 3 millimetres. Length of aper- 
ture, 2\ millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found among fine drift- 
wood, sand, and marine shells received from the Florida 
Keys. Is also quoted from Mexico and Alabama by 
Kiister (Chemn. ed. 2), and from Cuba and Jamaica by 
Pfeiffer. 

Remarks. This species shares the variations common 
to the genus. Its ribs are hardly as strongly developed as 
those of bilabiata and pulchella, nor are its whorls as con- 
vex. It is more nearly allied to the following species with 
which it appears to be confounded by Ktister. 

Both of my figures are from Chemnitz, fig. 2 represent- 
ing the base of the shell. 

TRUNCATELLA SUBCYLINDRICA GRAY. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURES 5, 6, 8. 

T. vix rimata, cylindrica, costulis confertis regularibus, vel ad suturam 



TRUNCATELLA. 187 

modo conspicuis, vel evanescentibus munita, nitida, pellucida, corneo- 
flava vel hyalina ; anfr. superst. 4 couvexiusculi, medio planati, regulariter 
accrescentes, ultimus basi non cristatus ; apertura verticalis, ampla, angu- 
lato-ovalis, basi subeffusa ; perist. leviter incrassatuni, margine externo 
subproducto, columellari breviter reflexo, adnato et superne incrassato. 
(Pfr.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helix wibcylimfrica PULTENEY, Cat. Dorsetsh. p. 49. 

MONTAGU, Test. Br. ii. p. 393. 
Truncatetta subcylindrica GRAY in Tuvton's Man. p. 22, f. 6. 

SHUTTLE-WORTH, Diagn. 7, p. 154. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Auric. Viv. 187; Mon. Phan. Viv. ii. 7. 

ORBIGNY, Moll. Cub. ii. p. 5, (excl. T. truncatula.) 
Truncatetta truncatida LOAVE, in Zool. Proc. 1845, p. 217?; in Zool. Journ. V. 

p. 299, tab. 13, figs. 13-18. V 

Truncatetta Caribceensis PFEIFFER in Zeitsch. f. Mai. 1846, p. 182, ex parte. 

KUSTER in Chemn. ed. 2, Auric, pi. ii. figs. 1-4. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell scarcely perforated or grooved, cylindrical, with 
crowded numerous ribs, sometimes quite imperceptible, 
and sometimes perceptible at the suture alone, shining, 
pellucid, light horn-color; four remaining whorls, rather 
convex, flattened at the middle, regularly increasing, the 
last one not prominently carinated at its base ; aperture 
vertical, large, oval, with an angle above, spreading below ; 
peristome slightly thickened, its outer margin slightly drawn 
out, reflected at the columellar, and thickened. 

Length, 5 ; breadth, 2 millimetres. Aperture 2 mill, 
long. 

Geographical Distribution. Found among rubbish from 
Florida Keys. Also is a common West Indian species. 

Remarks. I have given the figure from Chemnitz to 
which PfeifTer refers. Kiister confounded it with the pre- 
ceding species, from some forms of which it appears very 
difficult to separate it. Orbigny refers it to T. truncatula, 
a species described by Lowe from Madeira. 

The shell of which the base is given (fig. 8) was found 



188 ACICULACEA. 

in Florida, and having been referred to Pfeiffer for identi- 
fication, was returned with the name of subcylindrica. 

Its accidental introduction into England accounts for 
its presence in the English works above referred to. 

The base is not furnished with the prominent ridge or 
carina. 

TRUNCATELLA BILABIATA PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURES 3, 7. 

T. subrimata, cylindracea, gracilis, solida, opaca, fusca, costulata ; costis 
subarcuatis, elevatis, obtusis, interstitia sequantibus ; sutura profunda, 
simplex ; anfr. superst. 4|-5 convexi, ultimus vix longior, basi subcom- 
pressus, callosus ; apertura verticalis, ovalis, superne vix angulata ; perist. 
duplex ; externuoi album, callosuni, patens, in cristam basaleni transiens, 
internuin continuum, breviter porrectum. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 



Truncatella Ulabiata PFEIFFER in Wiegra. Arch. 1840, i. 253; in Zeit. f. Mai. 1846, 

p. 187; Mon. Auric. Viv. 192; Mon. Pneum. Viv. ii. 8. 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 7, pi. 1, figs. 27-31. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell subperforated or grooved, cylindrical, elegant, solid, 
opaque, brownish ; ribs subarcuate, elevated, obtuse, at 
equal distances ; suture deep and simple ; remaining 
whorls 4| to 5, convex, the last scarcely longer than the 
others, heavy and subcompressed at base ; aperture verti- 
cal, oval, scarcely angular above ; peristome double, the 
outer one white, heavy, and terminating in the basal ridge 
or carina, the inner one continuous. 

Length 5g, breadth If, length of aperture 1| millimetres. 

Geographical Distribution. Found with the preceding 
species ; also in Cuba (Pfeiffer), and on Carmen, an island 
of the Gulf of Mexico (Kiister). 

Remarks. The duplicated peristome and highly devel- 



TRUNCATELLA. 189 

oped basal ridge or carina are the characteristics of this 
species. 

Both of the figures are from Chemnitz. PfeifTer refers 
to them as representing his species. 

TRUNCATELLA PULCHELLA PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURES 1, 9, 10. 

T. subrimata, oblongo-subcylindrica, gracilis, rufo-cornea vel succinea, 
rarius hyalina, niticla, subpellucida, subtiliter costulata ; costulis vix eleva- 
tis, filiformibus, interstitia non aequantibus, ad suturam mediocrem saspe 
distinctioribus ; anfr. superst. 4-4i modice convexi, lente accrescentes* 
ultimus infra medium plerumque laevigatus, basi breviter compresso-cari- 
natus ; apertura subverticalis, oblique fere elliptica, basi subefTusa ; perist. 
simplex, continuum, expansiusculum, margine dextro crista levissima 
cincto. (Pfr.) 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Truncatella pulcheUa, PFEIFFER, in Wiegm. Arch. 1839, i. 356; in Zeitsch. f. 

Mai. 1846, p. 186; in Mon. Auric. Viv. 192; Mon. 

Pneum. Viv. ii. 8. 
SHUTTLEWORTH, Diag. 7, p. 155 
CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, Auric. 10, pi. ii. figs. 11-15. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Animal not observed. 

Shell subperforated, or grooved, oblongly subcylindrical, 
light, reddish horn-color or amber, shining, pellucid, lightly 
ribbed ; ribs scarcely elevated, threadlike, at irregular in- 
tervals, often more distinct at the moderate suture ; re- 
maining whorls 4 to 4|, rather convex, gradually increasing 
in size, the last generally smooth below the middle, com- 
pressly carinated at its base; aperture subvertical, oblique- 
ly elliptical, enlarging at base ; perist. simple, continuous, 
somewhat expanding, and furnished with a slight ridge at 
its right extremity. 

Length 4^-5, diameter l-2, length of aperture Ijj mil- 
limetres. 

Geographical Distribution. I detected specimens of 



11*0 CYCLOSTOMACEA. 

this West Indian shell among small shells collected by 
Mr. Bartlett in Florida. 

Remarks. Instead of figuring American specimens, I 
have preferred giving a fac-simile of the figures referred to 
by Pfeiffer. Fig. 1 is, however, from one of our speci- 
mens. 

Pfeiffer mentions a variety unknown to me, " distinctius 
costata, peristomate subduplicata." 

It seems nearest allied to the preceding species, and 
admits of no little variation. 

SUBORDER ECTOPHTHALMA. 

Eyes at the side of the head at the external base of the 
tentacles ; foot subelongate ; operculum horny or testa- 
ceous, not concentrically striate, and not always distinctly 
spirated. (Pfr.) 

It contains two families, Cyclostomacea and Helicinacea, 
which Binney united in the family Helicinadce. 

FAMILY CYCLOSTOMACEA. 

In addition to the characters of the suborder, Pfeiffer 
enumerates these : " whorls numerous and subequal, or 
few and rapidly increasing." 

SUBFAMILY CISTULEA. 

Operculum suboval, cartilaginous, with few whorls and 
excentric nucleus ; shell globose conic or ovate-turrited. 
(Pfr.) 

GENUS CHONDROPOMA PFEIFFER. 

Operculum oval, subcartilaginous, flat, with few, rapidly 
increasing whorls, and a nucleus generally very excentric. 
Shell oblong-turrited, generally truncated at tip, more 
rarely globosely conic ; aperture oval ; peristome simple, 



CHONDROPOMA. 191 

or more or less thickened, straight, expanded or widely 
reflected. (Pfr.) 

The only species of the old genus Cydostoma found in 
this country belongs to Chondropoma, and not to Cyclos- 
toma, as restricted by Pfeiffer, as stated by Gould on p. 
349. Other species are found in the West Indies. 

CHONDROPOMA DEXTATTJM SAY. .vol. ii. p. 348, pi. Ixii. Ixxv. fig. 24. 

Cydostoma dentatum SAT, (Binney's ed.) p. 29. 

Ckondropoma dentatum PFEIFFER, Mon. Pneum. Viv. i. 286; ii. 140; Malak. Bl- 

1856, p. 132. 
GRAY and PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Phan. 203. 

A view of the animal, twice its natural size, is given on 
pi. 75, fig. 24. 

It will be noticed that I have omitted from the synony- 
my the West Indian species C. lineolatum, crenulatum, 
Auberianum, and huiulatum. It is at present impossible 
to speak with certainty about their identity with dentatum. 
Poey removes it from his Cuban Catalogue, (Mem. i. o93.) 

It is worthy of note that Orbigny describes Auberianum 
as having equal transverse and longitudinal striae. A 
reference to the enlarged figure of the surface shows a 
very different case in dentatum. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Cydostoma Cincinnatensis Lea and DeKay, and 0. lapidaria Say 

Linsley, and Kirtland, are species of Amnieola. 
Cydostoma marginalis Kirtland, (Ohio Rep.) and C. marginata 

Say, are species of Bulimus. 
Cydostoma tricarinata Say is a Valvata. 

FAMILY HELICINACEA. 

Operculum without any vestige of a spiral form, testa- 
ceous, heavy or horny, thin, and furnishing no reliable 



592 HELICINACEA. 

characters by which to designate and divide the several 
genera : semioval or triangular. 

PfeifFer gives these as additional characteristics to those 
of the suborder. 

There are several genera comprised in the family, 
Alcadia, Trochatella^ Luddella, Stoastoma^ and Helicina, 
but the latter only has been found in this country. 

For remarks on the animals of this family, see vol. ii- 
p. 350. 

GENUS HELICINA LAMARK. 

HELICINA CHRYSOCHEILA BINNET. . . .vol. ii. p. 354, pi. Ixxiv. fig. 4. 

Helicina chrysocheila PFEIFFER, Mou. Pneum. Viv. ii. p. 197. 

I have in my cabinet my father's type of this species, 
and consider it distinct from Hel. Jamaicensis Sowb., and 
all other described species. I have a note taken by my 
father at the collection of M. Petit, in Paris, in which he 
says that a similar shell is labelled from Tampico. 

In the collection of the Smithsonian Institute is an 
individual from Texas, (Wurdemann.) It seems allied to 
Hel. turbinata Wiegm. 

Shuttleworth has used this name (1852) for another 
species, but has not priority. 

HELICINA HANLEYANA PFEIFFER. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURES 14, 16. 

T. globoso-conica, solidula, lineis concentricis impressis, subdistantibus 
sculpta, vix diaphana, nitida, fulvo-cornea ; spira breviter couoidea, 
obtusinscula ; anfr. 5 vix convexiusculi, ultimus rotundatus, antice sub- 
descendens ; apertura parum obliqua, subsemicircularis ; columella bre- 
vissirna, extrorsum denticulata, eallum tenuem, albidutn, diffusum emit- 
tens; perist. album, vix expansiusculum, intus subincrassatum, basi in 
denticulum columellse abiens. Operc. ? Diam. maj. 7, min. 6^, alt. 5| 

mill. 

Habitat prope New Orleans (Salle). 



HELICLNA. 193 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helicina Hanleyana PFEIFFER, in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1848, p. 122 ; Mon. Pneum. 

Viv. i. 376; ii. 203. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 45, pi. ix. figs. 7, 8. 
GRAY- et PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Phau. p. 302. 

Remarks. I have not seen this shell. The original 
description is given above, and a fac-simile of the figures 
from Chemnitz, ed. 2. 

HELICINA OCCULT A SAY vol. ii. p. 356, pi. Ixxiv. figs. 1, 2. 

Helicina occulta SAY (Binney's ed.) pp. 36, 37, pi. xlvi. figs. 4-6. 

CHENU, Bibl. Conch, iii. p. 59, pi. xv. figs. 2 b, 2 c, 2 d. 

DEKAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 82. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Pneum. Viv. i. 347; ii. 185. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 18, (1846), pi. iv. figs. 11, 12, (1850). 

GRAY and PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Phan. p. 250. 
Helicina rubella GREEN, 1. c. 

This is probably the species referred to in Kirtland's 
Ohio Hep. p. 199 (1838). 

I am inclined to consider Hel. rubella Green as a syno- 
nym of this species. From Sheboygan, Wise., I have 
received an apparently recent specimen of it collected by 
Mr. Lapham. Green's description is as follows : 

HELICINA RUBELLA. Shell more than inch broad, subglobose; 
spire slightly elevated, conical ; whorls 5 or 6, with minute oblique 
strife ; sutures slightly impressed ; epidermis smooth and of a light 
brick-red color ; aperture irregularly lunate, or semi-elliptical ; outer 
lip white, callous, and partially reflected near the base ; operculuni cor- 
neous, smooth. Hills, western Pennsylvania. 

HELICINA ORBICULATA SAY vol. ii. p. 352, pi. Ixxiii. Ixxiv. fig. 3. 

Helicina orbiculata SAT, (Binney's ed.) pp. 7, 36, pi. xlvi. figs. 1, 2. 

CHENU, Bibl. Conch. 3, p. 58, pi. xv. fig. 2, 2 a, 2 c. 
DE!VAY, N. Y. Moll. p. 82. 

CHEMNITZ, ed. 2, p. 74, (1846), pi. x. figs. 32, 33. 
PFEIFFER, Mon. Pneum. Viv. i. 375; ii. 199, (excl. H. ru- 
bella). 
GRAY and PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Phan. p. 272, not of Sow- 

ERBY. 
JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 25 



194 HELICINACEA. 

I adhere to the opinion expressed in vol. i. that Hel. 
rubella Green is identical with Hel. occulta^ and not with 
this species. PfeifFer follows the opinion of Gould. 

The most northern locality at which this species has 
been found is Tennessee. 

Helicina orbiculata Sowerby (Thes. Conch.) is not this 
species. Pfeiffer refers it to Hel. nitida, a Cuban shell. 

Helicina vestita Guilding, in Sowerby's Thesaurus, No. 
71, p. 14, tab. 1, fig. 42, appears to be the young of this 
species. Its description is copied by PfeifFer, who was 
unacquainted with the shell (Mon. Pneum. i. 353). It is 
given below, while the figure is copied on my pi. 75, 
fig. 19. 

H. VESTITA. T. globosa, tenui, concentrice lyrata, parva ; apertura 
semi-lunari ; labio externo tenui. Globose, thin, concentrically ribbed, 
small ; aperture semi-lunar, outer lip thin. North America. 

Helicina castanea Sowerby (1. c.) may also be an imma- 
ture specimen of orbiculata. The figure of Sowerby is 
copied on pi. 75, fig. 20, and his description given below. 
PfeifFer refers it to a variety of Hel. subfusca Menke (Mon. 
Pneum. i. 355). 

H. CASTANEA. Guilding ? T. H. orliculatce simili, sed Isevi, depressa 
labio externo tenui. 

Like H. orbiculata^ but smooth and depressed, outer lip thin. North 
America. 

Sowerby's figure of Hel. minuta is given pi. 75, fig. 18. 

HELICINA TROPICA IAHN. 
PLATE LXXIII. Middle fig. of lower line. 

T. globosa, solida, lasvigata, alba ; spira fornicata, subacuminata ; 
anfr. 5 convexiusculi, ultimus tumidus, antice non descendens ; apertura 
fere verticalis, subsernicircularis, multo altior -quam lata ; columella 
brevis, basi tuberculata, retrorsum in callum basalern diffusum, concolo- 
rem, antrorsurn in peristoma crassum, reflexum, interdum duplicatim 
continuata. Operc. ? Diam. maj. 8, rnin. 7, alt. 6 mill. (Pfr.) 



HELICINA. 195 

SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 

Helicina tropica IAHN in Chemnitz, ed. 2, p. 37, pi. iv. figs. 9, 10. 

PFEIFFER, Mon. Pneum. Viv. i. 375; ii. 199. 

GRAY and PFEIFFER, Brit. Mus. Phan. p. 271. 

TROSCHEL, Gebiss d. Schn. p. 81, pi. v. fig. 9, (teste Pfr.) 
Helicina Ambeliana SOWERBY, T hes. Tab. i. fig. 19, nee ROISSY. 

Remarks. The figure referred to is evidently this spe- 
cies, which is common in Texas. It appears to me to 
run imperceptibly into Hel. orbiculata, and will, in all 
probability, prove one of its many varieties. Indeed, 
PfeifFer observes, " Ex icone Sayana hanc speciem se- 
quent! (orbiculatce) identicam suspicor." 

Helicina Ambeliana Sowerby (not of DeRoissy) is 
referred to a " var. i3 flavida, vel rubella, interdum subfas- 
ciata," by PfeifTer, to which also he refers Chemnitz's 
variety (fig. 22). Sowerby's figure is given (pi. 75, fig. 
15), and his description here follows. 

H. AMBELIANA. T. conica, kevi, spiraliter tenuissime striata ; aper- 
tura semi-lunari ; labio externo crasso, reflexo, rotundato ; operculo cor- 
neo. 

Rather conical, globose, nearly smooth, with the aperture semilunar, 
and the outer lip thickened, reflected, and rounded ; operculum horny. 
Antilles and Texas. 

HELICINA SUBGLOBULOSA POEY. 
PLATE LXXV. FIGURE 17. 

T. globoso-conica, solida, striatula, parum nitida, alba, unicolor, vel 
zonis 2* run's ornata : altera lata prope suturam, altera angusta prope 
peripheriam ; spira convexo-conica, acuminatiuscula ; anfr. 6, primi 
planuli, penultinms convexior, subbiangulatus, ultimus subcarinatus, basi 
parum convexus ; coluniella brevis, arcuata, sursum dilatata, linea im- 
pressa munita, callum eniittens tenuem, diffusum ; apertura parum obli- 
qua, irregulariter semiovalis ; perist. latum, angulatim patens, subexca- 
vatum, ad utramque insertionem attenuatum. Operc. ? Diam. maj. 10, 
min. 8J, alt. 7 mill. (Pfeiffer.) 



196 HELICINACEA. 



SYNONYMS AND REFERENCES. 



Helicina subylobulosa POEY, Mem. i. 115, 120, tab. xii. figs. 17-21. 

PFEIFFER, Malak. Blatt. 1854, 107; 1856, 146; Mon. 
Pneum. Viv. ii. 209. 

Remarks. This species is an inhabitant of Trinidad 
and Bayamo in Cuba. A single specimen, found at Key 
Biscayne, Florida, (Smithsonian Coll.) is figured on the 
plate, magnified to twice its natural size. Whether its 
introduction was but accidental, or whether it is well 
established in Florida, remains to be proved. 

SPURIOUS SPECIES. 

Helicina fastigiata and plicata of DeKay (N. Y. Moll. p. 82 
are respectively Helix fastigiata Say and Helix Hazardi Bland. 



ERKAT A. 

On page 2, line 34, for Fenessac read Ferussac. 

5, " 39, " Pv. T. Shuttleworth read K. J. Shuttlewortli. 

10, " 6, " redimita read redemita. 

48, " 9, " 7. read .7. 

51, " 2, " its rend it. 

57, " 12, after 100) read ". 

58, " 2, for odstricta read obstricta. 
64, " 20, dele ?. 

80, " 14, for connectans read connectens. 

99, " 14, " isculis planu read planiusculis. 

124, " 7, " limited read limital. 

128, " 36, " consists read consist. 

131, " 29, " 88 read 80. 

133, " 2, " convexiusculis read convexiusculi. 

135, " 10, " Macrocerramus read Macroceramus. 

138. " 32, " gracillmus read gracillimus. 

166, " 16, dele !. 

192, for 592 read 192. 



INDEX TO VOLUME IV. 



Achatiua bullata, 138. 
Califovnica, 26. 
fasciata, 138. 
flammigera, 138. 
gracillima, 135, 138. 
lubrica, 138. 
lubricoides, 138. 
pellucida, 138, 175. 
picta, 138. 
rosea, 139. 
solida, 138. 
striata, 139. 
subula, 139. 
Texasiana, 139. 
truncata, 139. 
Vanuxemensis, 139. 
virginea, 138. 
Agatina variegata, 138. 
Alexia myosotis, 172. 
Anchistoma thyroides, 54. 
Aplodon nodosum, 152. 
Arion^mpiricorum, 31. 
foliolatus, 31. 
hortensis, 31. 
Auricula bideutata, 157. 
biplicata, 157. 
cingulata, 161. 
coniformis, 163. 
cornea, 157. 
denticulata, 172. 
Floridiana, 165. 
Jaumei, 157. 
monile, 166. 
nitens, 169. 
obliqua, 168. 
oliva, 161. 
ovula, 163. 
pusilla, 169. 
Sayii, 172. 
stenostoma, 161. 
Blauneria heteroclita, 177. 

pellucida, 175. 
Bulimus acicula, 137. 
alternatus, 126. 



Bulimus Binneyanus, 12S 
Californicus, 24. 
chordatus, 25. 
coniformis, 163. 
confinis, 130. 
dealbatus, 126, 130. 
decollatus, 134. 
Dormani, 132. 
elatus, 24. 
excelsus, 24. 
exiguus, 137, 178. 
fallax, 136. 
fasciatus, 137. 
Floridianus, 134. 
Gossei, 135, 137. 
gracillimus, 134. 
barpa, 135. 
hordeanus, 145. 
hortensis, 134. 
Humboldti, 25. 
Kieneri, 137. 
lactarius, 126. 
Laurentii, 25. 
Liebmanni, 128. 
liquabilis, 130. 
lubricus, 137. 
marginatus, 136. 
Marias, 128. 
Mexicanus, 25. 
monile, 166. 
multilineatus, 132. 
mutilatus, 134. 
nitelinus, 126. 
obscurus, 137, 145. 
octona, 137. 
ovulus, 169. 
patriarcha, 129. 
physoides, 131. 
Schiedeanus, 129. 
serperastrus, 126. 
striatus, 137. 
subula, 134. 
sufflatus, 25. 
vegetus, 25. 



198 



INDEX. 



Bulimus vermetus, 137. 

vesicalis, 25. 

vexillum, 137. 

virgulatus, 132. 

zebra, 25, 125, 137. 

Ziebmanni, 126. 

Ziegleri, 25. 
Bradybasna pisum, 50. 
Carocolla Cumberlandiana, 99. 

Edgariana, 65. 

helicoides, 58. 
Carychium armigerum, 183. 

contractum, 183. 

corticarium, 146, 183. 

euphseum, 178. 

exiguum, 178. 

exile, 178. 

existelium, 178. 

rupicola, 145, 183. 
Chimotrema planiuscuium, 152. 
Chondropoma dentatum, 191. 
Cyclostoma dentatum, 191. 

Cincinnatense, 191. 

lapidarium, 191. 

marginale, 191. 

marginatum, 191. 

tricarinatum, 191. 
Cylindrella Goldfussi, 151. 

jejuna, 15. 

lactaria, 150. 

Poeyana, 149. 

pontifica, 151. 

Koemeri, 150. 

variegata, 149. 
Deroceras gracile, 32. 
Eumelus lividus, 32. 

nebulosus, 32. 
Glandina Albersi, 26. 

bullata, 139. 

corneola, 139. 

parallela, 140. 

Texasiana, 140. 
truncata, 141. 

turris, 26. 

Vanuxemensis, 141. 
Hemiloma avarum, 152. 
Helicina Ambeliana, 195. 

castanea, 194. 

chrysocheila, 192. 

fastigiata, 196. 

Hanleyana, 192. 

minuta, 194. 

occulta, 193. 

orbiculata, 193. 

plicata, 196. 

rubella, 193. 

subglobulosa, 195. 

tropica, 194. 

vestita, 194. 

Helico-limax canaliculata 34. 
Helix abjecta, 51. 

acutedentata, 23. 

seruginosa, 15. 



Helix alliaria, 117. 
albocincta, 50. 
albolabris, 43. 
albolineata, 50. 
albozonata, 50. 
alternata, 98. 
anachoreta, 11. 
annulata, 102. 
apex, 103. 
appressa, 59. 
arborea, 116. 
arboretorum, 7. 
arbustorum, 123 
areolata, 19. 
Ariadnae, 76. 
arrosa, 15. 
aspersa, 24, 51. 
asteriscus, 103. 
auriculata, 73. 
avara, 74. 
barbigera, 63. 
Baskervillei, 17. 
Berlanderiana, 49. 
bicostata, 121. 
Bonplandi, 124. 
bucculenta, 54. 
bulbina, 115. 
caduca, 107. 
Californiensis, 13. 
capsella, 117. 
carnicolor, 51. 
Carolinensis, 57. 
cellaria, 111. 
cereola, 90. 
chersina, 119. 
cicercula, 50. 
Clarkii, 53. 
clausa, 46, 59. 
Columbiana, 16. 
concava, 65. 
convexa, 60. 
Cooperi, 97. 
corpuloides, 124. 
costata, 69. 
Couchiana, 76. 
cultellata, 22. 
Cumberlandiana, 99. 
Damascena, 18. 
dealbata, 124. 
demissa, 116. 
denotata, 57. 
dentifera, 55. 
depicta, 124. 
devia, 17. 
diodonta, 70. 
dissidens, 65. 
divesta, 51. 
domestica, 33, 124. 
Dorfeuilliana, 86. 
Dupetithouarsi, 15. 
Edgariana, 65. 
Edvardsi, 63. 
egena, 119. 



INDEX. 



199 



Helix electrina, 117. 
elevata, 52. 
Elliotti, 116. 
ephebus, 71. 
exarata, 13. 
exigua, 102. 
exoleta, 54. 
Fabricii, 120. 
fallax, 71. 
fastigiata, 82. 
fidelis, 14. 
florulifera, 75. 
fraterna, 60. 
friabilis, 106. 
fuliginosa, 105. 
fulva, 119. 
germana, 14. 
glaphyra, 109, 111. 
griseola, 50. 

Solaris, 121. 
undlachi, 121. 
Hammonis, 121. 
harpa, 124. 
Hazard!, 84. 
hieroglyphica, 124. 
Hindsi, 92. 
hippocrepis, 77. 
hirsuta, 62. 
hispida, 124. 
Hopetonensis, 72. 
hortensis, 51. 
incrustata, 68. 
indentata, 119. 
infecta, 98. 
inflecta, 59. 
infumata, 15. 
inornata, 109. 
intercisa, 8. 
interim, 121. 
iutertexta, 96. 
irrorata, 124. 
isognomostomos, 62. 
jejuna, 67. 
Kelletti, 17. 
kopnodes, 104. 
labiosa, 16. 
labyrinthica, 95. 
lactea, 125. 
lasvigata, 108. 
lasmodon, 122. 
Lavelleana, 103. 
Leaii, 60. 
Lecontii, 14. 
leporina, 92. 
levis, 18. 
ligera, 95. 
limatula, 100. 
lineata, 123. 
linguifera, 59. 
Loisa, 23. 
loricata, 14. 
lucida, 116. 
lucubrata, 108. 



Helix macilenta, 122. 
major, 43. 
Maurmiana, 103. 
maxillata, 65. 
Mazatlanica, 24. 
microdonta, 91. 
milium, 101. 
minuscula, 102. 
minuta, 69. 
minutalis, 103. 
minutissima, 100. 
Mitchella, 48. 
Mitchelliana, 47. 
Mobiliana, 67. 
monodon, 60. 
Mooreana. 80. 
Mormonum, 15. 
mordax, 99. 
raultidentata, 123. 
multilineata, 45. 
nemoralis, 51, 125. 
nemorivaga, 7. 
Newberryana, 20. 
Nickliniana, 7. 
nitida, 120. 
Nuttalliana, 14. 
obstricta, 57. 
operculata, 83. 
Oregonensis, 15. 
Ottonis, 117. 
pachyloma, 49. 
patula, 122. 
palliata, 56. 
Pandora, 18. 
pellucida, 33, 125. 
Pennsylvanica, 45. 
perspectiva, 122. 
Pisana, 51, 125. 
placentula, 117. 
plana, 91. 
planorboides, 65. 
planorbula, 90. 
plicata, 84. 
polychroa, 51. 
polygyrata, 90. 
porcina, 59, 62. 
profunda, 70. 
pulchella, 69. 
pusilla, 121. 
pustula, 94. 
pustuloides, 93. 
Rafinesquea, 96. 
ramentosa, 13. 
redemita, 9. 
reticulata, 12. 
Richardi, 70. 
Roemeri, 55. 
rhodocheila, 51. 
ruderata, 99. 
rufa, 44. 
Rugeli, 60. 
Sagraiana, 23. 
Sayii, 70, 74. 



200 



INDEX. 



Helix saxicola, 68. 

scabra, 98. 

sculptilis, 110. 

selenina, 119. 

septemvolva, 90. 

sinuata, 62. 

solitaria, 96. 

spinosa, 65. 

splendidula, 50. 

sportella, 19. 

Steenstrupii, 117. 

stenotrema, 61. 

striatella, 99. 

strigosa, 23. 

strongylodes, 98. 

subcylindrica, 125, 187. 

subglobosa, 51. 

submeris, 51. 

subplana, 110. 

suppressa, 122. 

Tamaulipasensis, 79. 

Tennesseensis, 52. 

tenuistriata, 118, 

Texasiana, 79. 

tholus, 81. 

thyroides, 53. 

thyroidus, 53. 

Townsendiana, 15. 

triclentata, 70. 

triodonta, 79. 

Troostiana, 88. 

Trumbulli, 125. 

tudiculata, 7. 

uvulifera, 75. 

Vancouverensis, 19. 

varians, 51. 

vellicata, 19. 

ventrosula, 72. 

vincta, 13. 

virgata, 125. 

virgin alls, 49. 

volvoxis, 92. 
vortex, 117. 

vultuosa, 75. 

Wardiana, 96. 

zaleta, 54. 

Leuconia Sayii, 177. 
Limax agrestis, 31. 

campestris, 32. 

Colurabianus, 6, 32. 

dorsalis, 31. 

flavus, 31. 

fuliginosus, 32. 

gracilis, 32. 

lineatus, 32. 

marmoratus, 30. 

olivaceus, 32. 

variegatus, 31. 

Macroceramus pontificus, 137. 
Melampus bidentatus, 156. 

biplicatus, 157. 

borealis, 171, 173. 

cingulatus, 161. 



Melampus coffea, 162. 

coniformis, 163. 

corneus, 157. 

denticulatus, 171, 173. 

flavus, 166. , 

Floridianus, 165. 

Jaumei, 157. 

lineatus, 157. 

monile, 166. 

obliquus, 167. 

olivaceus, 26. 

pusillus, 168. 

Kedfieldi, 170. 

turritus, 174 
Mesodon helicinum, 52. 

leucodon, 54. 

maculatum, 152. 
Mesomphix, 152. 
Odomphium, 152. 
Odotrppis, 152. 
Oleacina bullata, 139. 

Cubensis, 175. 

truncata, 141. 

Vanuxemensis, 141. 
Omphalina cuprea, 152. 
Partula Otaheitana, 152. 
Philomycus Carolinensis, 30, 

dorsalis, 31. 

flexuolaris, 32. 

fuscus, 32. 

oxyurus, 32. 

quadrilus, 32. 
Planorbis glans, 141. 
Polygyra auriculata, 73. 

avara, 74. 

Dorfeuilliana, 86. 

plicata, 84. 

profunda, 70. 

septemvolva, 90. 

Troostiana, 88. 
Pupa albilabris, 147. 

armifera, 142. 

badia, 142. 

carinata, 145. 

contracta, 143. 

corticaria, 146. 

costulata, 147. 

curvidens, 143. 

decora, 143. 

deltostoma, 143. 

detrita, 142. 
exigua, 147. 
fallax, 147. 

g'bbosa, 145. 
ouldii, 148. 
Hoppii, 147. 
incana, 141. 
raaritima, 142. 
milium, 148. 
minuta, 145. 
raodesta, 148. 
modica, 142. 
rauscorum, 142. 



INDEX. 



201 



Pupa ovata, 148. 

ovula, 148. 

Parraiana, 148. 

pellucida, 147. 

pentodon, 143. 

placida, 144. 

procera, 145. 

rupicola, 145. 

simplex, 148. 

Steenbuchii, 147. 

Tappaniana, 144. 

unicarinata, 148. 

variolosa, 146. 
Stenotrema convexum, 152. 
Stenostoma convexum, 62. 
Succinea amphibia, 42. 

aperta, 7. 

aurea, 37. 

avara, 36. 

campestris, 34. 

cingulata, 7. 

Concordialis, 41. 

eflfusa, 41. 

Groenlandica, 38. 

Haydeni, 40. 

inflata, 34. 

lineata, 35, 38. 

luteola, 41. 

munita, 41. 

Nuttalliana, 6. 

obliqua, 35. 

Oregonensis, 6. 

ovalis, 35, 37. 

putris, 42. 

retusa, 37. 

rusticaua, 6. 

Salle"ana, 42. 

Texasiana, 41. 

Totteniana, 35. 

vermeta, 36. 

Wardiana, 36. 
Tebennophorus biliueatus, 31. 



Tebennophorus Carolinensis, 30. 

dorsalis, 31. 
Testacina, 32. 
Tornatellina Cubensis, 175. 
Toxostoma globulare, 152. 
Toxotrema globulare, 152. 
Tridopsis hirsuta, 62. 
Triodopsis lunula, 70, 152. 

scabra, 57. 
Trophodon, 152, 
Truncatella bilabiata, 188. 

Californica, 28. 

Carib^eensis, 185. 

Gouldii, 186. 

gracilenta, 29. 

pulchella, 189. 

subcylindrica, 186. 

succinea, 186. 

truncatula, 187. 
Urcinella, 32. 
Vaginulus flexuolaris, 30. 

Floridanus, 29. 

fuscus, 30. 

oxyurus, 30. 

quadrilus, 30. 
Vertigo contracta, 143. 

curvidens, 143. 

decora, 143. 

Gouldii, 148. 

milium, 148. 

minuta, 146. 

ovata, 148. 

rupicola, 145. 

simplex, 148. 

variolosa, 146. 
Vitrina Americana, 33. 

Angelica, 32. 

limpida, 33. 
Xolotrema clausum, 59. 

lunulum, 152. 

triodopse, 152. 
Zilotea, 32. 



26 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



PLATE LXXV. 

Fig. 

1 Base of TRUNCATELLA PULCHELLA Pfr. 

2 " " CARIB.EENSIS Sowb., from Chemn. pi. 2, 

fig. 22. 

3 TRUNCATELLA BILABIATA Pfr., from Chemn. pi. 1, fig. 28. 

4 " CARIB.EENSIS Sowb., from Chemn. pi. 1, fig. 36. 

5 " SUBCYLINDRICA Gray, from Chemn. pi. 2, fig. 2. 

6 " " " " " " ficr. 4. 

o 

7 Base of TRUNCATELLA BILABIATA Pfr., from Chemn. pi. 1, fig. 30. 

8 " " SUBCYLINDRICA Gray. 

9 TRUNCATELLA PULCHELLA Pfr., from Chemn. pi. 2, fig. 12. 

10 " " " pi. 2, fig. 13. 

11 Animal of TRUNCATELLA, from Adams Gen. pi. 78, fig. 1. 

12 AURICULA CINGULATA Pfr., from Orbignypl. 13, fig. 8. 

13 " " " " " pi. 13, fig. 9. 

14 HELICINA HANLEYANA Pfr., from Chemn. pi. 9, fig. 7. 

15 " AMBELIANA Sowb., Thes. Conch, pi. 1, fig. 19. 

16 " HANLEYANA Pfr., from Chemn. pi. 9, fig. 8. 

17 " SUBGLOBULOSA Poey twice the natural size. 

18 " MINUTA Sowb., from Thes. Conch, pi. 1, fig. 41. 

19 " VESTITA Gould, " pi. 1, fig. 42. 

20 " CASTANEA Gould, " pi. 1, fig. 32. 

21 Animal of MELAMPUS COFFEA Lin., from Ad. Gen. pi. 82, fig. 7. 

22 " ALEXIA DENTICULATA Mont., " " pi. 82, fig. 5. 

23 MELAMPUS BIDENTATUS Say. 

24 Animal of CHONDROPOMA DENTATUM Say twice the natural size. 

25 MELAMPUS COFFEA Lin., from Orbigny pi. 13, fig. 6. 
27 Operculum of 24 enlarged. 



204 EXPLANATION 

Fig. 

29 MELAMPUS PUSILLUS Gmel. 

30 MELAMPUS FLORIDIANUS Shuttl. 

31 Enlarged view of head of HELICINA TROPICA Jan. 

32 CARYCHIUM EXILE Lea, reduced view of aperture from Sill. Journ. 

42 1. c. 

33 ALEXIA MYOSOTIS Drap. 

34 LEUCONIA SAYII Kust., from Chemn. pi. 6, fig. 16. 



PLATE LXXVI. 

1 HELIX ACUTEDENTATA. 

2 " LOISA. 

3 " AREOLATA Sowb. var. from Chemn. pi. 36, fig. 13. 

4 " ARROSA Gould. 

5 " ANACHORETA. 

6 " CULTELLATA Thomson. 

7 " NEWBERRYANA. 

8 PANDORA Forb., from Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, pi. 9, fig. 3 b. 

9 " DUPETITHOUARSI Desh., from Mag. Zool. 1841, pi. 30. 

10 " LEVIS Pfr., from Chemn. pi. 36, fig. 16. 

11 " AREOLATA Sowb., from Chemn. pi. 36, fig. 10. 

12 " KELLETTI Forb., from Zool. Proc. 1850, pi. 9, fig. 2 b. 

13 " ARBORETORUM Val., from Voy. de la Venus, pi. 1, fig. 3 a. 



PLATE LXXVII. 

1 Enlarged view of epidermis of HELIX BARBIGERA Redfield, from 

N. Y. Lye. vi. pi. 9, fig. 7. 

2 HELIX BARBIGERA Redfield, from N. Y. Lye. vi. fig. 4, 5. 

3 " RCEMERI Pfr. 

4 " ASPERSA Milll. 

5 " DISSIDENS Desh., from Fer. pi. 84, fig. 1. 
6-7 " MINUTISSIMA Lea much enlarged. 

8 " STRONGYLODES Pfr., from original specimen. 

9 " ASTERISCUS Morse very highly magnified. 

10 " CLARKII Lea twice the natural size. 

11 " COOPERI slightly enlarged. 

12 " PUSTULA Fer., from pi. 50, fig. 1. 



OF THE PLATES. 205 

Fig. 

13 BULIMUS ZEBRA Mull. var. 

14 HELIX VENTROSULA Pfr. 

15 " SCULPTILIS Bland. 

16 " HOPETONENSIS Shuttl. 

17 " FABRICII Beck, from Reeve, 1459 magnified. 

18 " ELLIOTTI Redf. 

19 " ANNULATA Case, from Sill. Journ. N. S. iii. 101. 

20 " GRISEOLA Pfr., from Chemn. pi. 60, fig. 17. 

21 Variety of GLANDINA TEXASIANA Pfr. ? 

22 HELIX VIRGINALIS Jan, from Chemn. pi. 38, fig. 19. 

23 " CEREOLA Miihlf., from Berlin Mag. 1. c. 



PLATE LXXVHI. 

1 HELIX ARIADNE Pfr., outline of Chenin. pi. 65, fig. 31. 

2 HELIX DORFEUILLIANA Lea, var. ? from N. Y. Lye. vi. pi. ix. 

fig. 26. 

3 Same as fig. 1, pi. 65, fig. 29. 

4 " " aperture magnified. 

5 HELIX HINDSI Pfr. aperture magnified. 

6 " " " outline of Chemn. pi. 65, fig. 9. 

7 HELIX EDVARDSI Bland, from N. Y. Lye. vi. pi. ix. fig. 15. 

8 Same as 6, pi. 65, fig. 8. 

9 HELIX EDVARDSI Bland, from N. Y. Lye. vi. pi. ix. fig. 16. 

10 " FASTIGIATA Say magnified four times, from N. Y. Lye. vi. 

pi. ix. fig. 18. 

11 TROOSTIANA Lea " " " " pi. ix. fig. 23. 

12 BULIMUS ZEBRA Mull. var. from Key Biscayne. 

13 HELIX HAZARDI Bland, magn. 8 times from N. Y. Lye. vi. pi. ix. 

fig. 27. 

14 " DORFEUILLIANA Lea, magn. 4 times from N. Y. Lye. vi. 

pi. ix. fig. 25 a. 

15 " RUGELI Shuttl., magn. 4 times. 

16 PUPA GIBBOSA Pfr., from Chemn. pi. 66, fig. 6. 

17 HELIX VOLVOXIS Parr. 

18 " TEXASIANA Mor. var. (triodonta Binn.) 

19 " HIPPOCREPIS Pfr. 

20 PUPA HOPPII Moll, from Chemn. pi. 19, fig. 30. 

21 HELIX THOLUS. 



206 EXPLANATION 

Fig. 

22 Animal of HELIX VARIANS. 

23 HELIX MICRODONTA Desh., from Fer. pi. 70, fig. 13. 

24 " MOOREANA. 



PLATE LXXIX. 

1 SUCCINEA LINEATA. 

2 HELIX INFUMATA Gould. 

3 BULIMUS FLORIDIANUS Pfr., from original specimen. 

4 HELIX MILIUM Morse very highly magnified. 

5 a u " 

6 MELAMPUS COFFEUS Lin. var. ? 

7 SUCCINEA RETUSA Lea, from Phil. Tr. 1. c. pi. 19, fig. 86. 

8 MELAMPUS OLIVACEUS Carpenter. 

9 VITRINA ANGELICA Beck highly magnified. 

10 HELIX BULBINA Desh., from Fer. pi. 85, fig. 17. 

11 " NEMORIVAGA Val., from Voy. de la Venus pi. 1, fig. 1 a. 

12 BULIMUS EXCELSUS Gould, from Bost. Journ. 1857, pi. xiv. fig. 3. 

13 HELIX DEVIA Gould. 

14 SUCCINEA RUSTICANA Gould, from Ex. Ex. fig. 29. 

15 BULIMUS CALIFORNICUS Reeve, No. 378 increased one half. 

16 Animal of ALEXIA MYOSOTIS Drap. 

17 PUPA INCANA Binn., var. fasciata. 

18 SUCCINEA SALLEANA Pfr. from Chemn. 

19 ACHATINA CALIFORNICA Reeve, No. 115 natural size. 

20 TRUNCATELLA CALIFORNICA Pfr. greatly enlarged. 

21 HELIX MORMONUM Pfr., from type. 

22 Same as 20. 

23 CYLINDRELLA GOLDFUSSI Mke. twice the natural size. 



PLATE LXXX. 

1 BULIMUS ALTERNATUS Say, var. ? 

2 HELIX FRIABILIS. 

3 BULIMUS ALTERNATUS Say, from his drawing. 

4 SUCCINEA GRCENLANDICA Beck enlarged. 

5 " LINEATA. 

6 BULIMUS LIQUABILIS Reeve, No. 387. 



OF THE PLATES. 207 



Fig. 

7 BULIMUS CONFINIS Reeve, No. 643. 

8 " SCHIEDEANUS Pfr. ? apice nigra. 

9 GLANDINA TRUNCATA Gmel. var. 

10 BULIMUS DORMANI. 

11 SUCCINEA INFLATA Lea, from type. 

12 " EFFUSA Shuttl. enlarged. 

13 BULIMUS PATRIARCHA. 

14 HELIX KOPNODES. 

15 BULIMUS SCHIEDEANUS Pfr. var. ? fauce nigra. 



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